Beneficial effects of selective item repetition on the recall of other items
This study aimed at providing more direct evidence for this proposal by examining the influence of mental reinstatement of study context for the effects of selective retrieval. In addition, it was examined whether the induced beneficial effect generalizes from selective retrieval to selective restudy, and varies with retrieval difficulty, thus providing evidence on whether format of selective item repetition can influence context reactivation processes. In four experiments, prolonged retention intervals between study and selective item repetition were employed to impair study context access. Two main results emerged. First, mental reinstatement of the study context can eliminate, and even reverse, the beneficial effect of selective retrieval. Second, the size of the beneficial effect varies with repetition format, and is larger after selective retrieval than selective restudy, and larger when selective retrieval is demanding. These findings strengthen the view that context reactivation processes mediate the beneficial effects of selective item repetition. In particular, they indicate that the degree of repetition-induced context reactivation can vary with repetition format.
Edgardo Sepulveda, Andrei N. Lupas
Cory Schwartz, Keith Frogue, Joshua Misa, Ian Wheeldon
Carole Pfister, St éphane Bourque, Odile Chatagnier, Annick Chiltz, Jérôme Fromentin, Diederik Van Tuinen, Daniel Wipf, Nathalie Leborgne-Castel
Xue-Ying Tian, Cheng-Sheng Zhang
Guangshan Yao, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Xiuna Wang, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Hany S. Zinad, Inas Natasya, Andreas Werner
Majdiah Othman, Arbakariya B. Ariff, Leonardo Rios-Solis, Murni Halim
ConclusionsA MEL‐A2 with novel composition and surface activities was efficiently produced from a novel MEL producer. This is the first report on production of MEL‐A2 as the major product and from soybean oil. The biosurfactant has potential application as a wetting agent and oil‐in‐water emulsifier. Significance and Impact of the StudyDiscovery of novel structures and novel strains is valuable for further commercial development and application of MELs. Sporisorium sp. aff. sorghi SAM20 can be considered as a potential candidate for commercial production of biosurfactants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. The phosphodiesterase VieA regulates gene expression by modifying the intracellular cyclic diguanylate pool. This article reveals the differential regulation of VieA in Vibrio cholerae O1 biotypes. Expression of VieA is repressed by the nucleoid‐associated protein H‐NS and the LysR‐type regulator LeuO in classical biotype V. cholerae, and by H‐NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR in the El Tor biotype.
We describe approaches for back‐calculating model parameter estimates and their standard errors from available summary statistics with various techniques, including approximate Bayesian computation. We propose to use a quadratic approximation to the log‐likelihood for each historical trial based on 2 independent terms for the log mean rate and the log of the dispersion parameter. A Bayesian hierarchical meta‐analysis model then provides the posterior predictive distribution for these parameters. Simulations show this approach with back‐calculated parameter estimates results in very similar inference as using parame...