Analysis of the Duodenal Microbiome in Autistic Individuals: Association With Carbohydrate Digestion

Objectives: There is evidence that symptoms of maldigestion or malabsorption in autistic individuals are related to changes in the indigenous microbiota. Analysis of colonic bacteria has revealed microbial dysbiosis in children with autism; however, characteristics of the duodenal microbiome are not well described. In the present study the microbiome of the duodenal mucosa of subjects with autism was evaluated for dysbiosis, bacteria overgrowth, and microbiota associated with carbohydrate digestion. The relationship between the duodenal microbiome and disaccharidase activity was analyzed in biopsies from 21 autistic subjects and 19 children without autism. Methods: Microbiota composition was determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, and disaccharidase activity via biochemical assays. Results: Although subjects with autism had a higher frequency of constipation (P 
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Article: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

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We present male (N = 2) and female (N = 3) probands ascertained via diagnostic exome sequencing with distinct variant types in the IQSEC2 gene encompassing a spectrum of phenotypic severity with patient sex, variant type and inheritance hypothesized to drive disease penetrance and expressivity. All of these patients demonstrated epilepsy, global developmental delays, intellectual disability, and constipation. Our data support that de novo, truncating variants correlate with severe disease in both female and male patients harboring an IQSEC2 alteration. Missense variants in male and female patients may account for a...
Source: European Journal of Medical Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Eur J Med Genet Source Type: research
Conclusions: It is still too early to draw a conclusion about the gut microbes involved in GI symptoms of ASD. Future research should consider the relationship between ASD behavior, GM, and GI symptoms in a multidisciplinary way and homogenize sample characteristics. PMID: 31357482 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research
Conditions:   Crohn Disease;   Ulcerative Colitis;   Celiac Disease;   Irritable Bowel Syndrome;   Functional Dysphonia;   Constipation;   Clostridium Difficile Infection;   Diabetes Mellitus;   Obesity;   Multidrug -Resistant Infection;   Hepatic Encephalopathy;   Multiple Sclerosis;   Pseudo-Obstruction;   Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infection;   Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Infection;   Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome;...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Authors: Inoue R, Sakaue Y, Kawada Y, Tamaki R, Yasukawa Z, Ozeki M, Ueba S, Sawai C, Nonomura K, Tsukahara T, Naito Y Abstract Prebiotic dietary water-soluble fiber obtained from partially hydrolyzed guar gum was added to diets of children with autism spectrum disorders who presented constipation symptoms. Supplementation with partially hydrolyzed guar gum altered gut microbiota and significantly increased the frequency of defecation per week and altered the gut microbiota. In addition, supplementation with partially hydrolyzed guar gum significantly (p
Source: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Clin Biochem Nutr Source Type: research
Albert Sanfeliu1, Karsten Hokamp2, Michael Gill1 and Daniela Tropea1,3*1Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, St James Hospital, Dublin, Ireland2Department of Genetics, School of Genetics and Microbiology, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, IrelandRett syndrome is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder with a wide symptomatology including impaired communication and movement, cardio-respiratory abno...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Almost one-third of ASD patients in our sample had at least one fGID. The presence of fGID was associated with ID, sleep problems and with behavioral problems (as measured by the prescription of psychotropic drugs). This subsample of ASD patients with fGID deserves particular attention in future research projects, focusing on specific phenotypic characteristics and overlapping biological markers that may underlie both pathologies. Introduction Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Results suggest that the presentation of externalizing problem behavior and internalizing symptoms associated with GI problems differs between young children and older children with ASD. Therefore, behavior may have different relationships with GI symptoms at different ages, which may have implications for the treatment of and clinical approach to GI disturbances in ASD. Introduction Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and acti...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract A large number of children in the autism spectrum disorder suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, such as constipation and diarrhea. Clostridium bolteae is part of a set of pathogens being regularly detected in the stool samples of hosts affected by GI and autism symptoms. Accompanying studies have pointed to the possibility that such microbes affect behaviour through the production of neurotoxic metabolites in a so-called, gut-brain connection. As an extension of our Clostridium difficile polysaccharide (PS)-based vaccine research, we engaged in the discovery of C. bolteae surface carbohydrates. S...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
AbstractPotential psychological, health, and demographic correlates of atypical eating behaviors in children with autism were analyzed in the largest sample with the broadest range of independent variables to date. Eating behaviors were assessed in 1112 children with autism 1 –17 years of age using the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (CASD), a standardized parent interview conducted by licensed psychologists. Independent variables were demographics (age, IQ, sex, race, and parent occupation), 29 CASD autism symptom scores (e.g., distress with change and sensory hypersensitivity), psychotropic medication u...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
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