What can be done to lessen morbidity associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders?

Fetal alcohol syndrome and its wider spectrum of presentation fetal alcohol spectrum disorders represent a range of disorders that are sometimes difficult to recognise as they may present in a way that overlaps with other conditions. This makes identification and recognition challenging, which increases the burden associated with the disorder. When considering the reduction in morbidity, both prevention of exposure to alcohol by the fetus and early identification of cases are required. This selective review seeks to highlight some of the complexities involved as well as highlighting the challenges. By considering populations particularly at risk to exploring the reality of alcohol risk it will seek to offer some solutions to begin the process of change.
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Pregnancy Review Source Type: research

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Abstract Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in physical, cognitive, and neurological deficits termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Deficits in social functioning associated with PAE are frequently observed and persist throughout the lifespan. Social impairments, such as social anxiety, are associated with increased alcohol abuse, which is also highly pervasive following PAE. Yet, the relationship between PAE-induced social alterations and alcohol intake later in life is not well understood. In order to test this relationship, we exposed pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats to a single instance of ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians may want to consider newborn PEth screening in high-risk populations where prenatal alcohol use is common. The mechanism underlying significantly higher PEth levels in newborns compared with their mothers is not known. PMID: 32441809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
(Oregon Health&Science University) New images reveal the earliest impairments to nonhuman primate fetal brain development due to alcohol ingested by the mother, in a study led by scientists at Oregon Health&Science University involving rhesus macaques. Magnetic resonance imaging showed impairments to brain growth during the third trimester of pregnancy, even though the fetus was exposed to alcohol only during the first trimester.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
One factor that contributes to the high prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is binge-like consumption of alcohol before pregnancy awareness. It is known that treatments are more effective with early recognition of FASD. Recent advances in retrospective motion correction for the reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) fetal brain MRI...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Abstract The nerve growth factor (NGF) belongs to the family of neurotrophic factors. Initially discovered as a signaling molecule involved in the survival, protection, differentiation and proliferation of sympathetic and peripheral sensory neurons, it also participates in the regulation of the immune system and endocrine system. NGF biological activity is due to the binding of two classes of receptors: the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA), and the low-affinity NGF pan-neurotrophin receptor p75. Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) are one of the most frequent mental disorders in developed countries, characterized by he...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: We conclude that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy alters mTORC1 signaling pathway in the fetal hippocampus. We conjecture that this dysregulation of mTOR protein expression, its activity, and downstream proteins may play a critical role in FASD neurobiological phenotypes. PMID: 32333810 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and their mothers in a Midwestern city. METHODS: Case-control samples were drawn from 2 separate first-grade cohorts (combined N = 4,047) in every city school using different methods. In Cohort Sample 1, all consented small children (≤25th centile on height, weight, and/or head circumference) entered the study along with a random sample from all enrolled students. Cohort Sample 2 was drawn totally at random. Child growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavior were assessed using the Collaborat...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To detail the characteristic traits of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and maternal risk factors in a southeastern U.S. County. METHODS: Independent samples were drawn from 2 different cohorts of first-grade students. All consented children (49.8%) were measured for height, weight, and head circumference, and those ≤ 25th centile entered the study along with a random sample drawn from all enrolled students. Study children were examined for physical growth, dysmorphology, and neurobehavior, and their mothers were interviewed. RESULTS: Total dysmorpho...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This site had the second highest prevalence of FASD of the 4 Collaboration on FASD Prevalence sites and clearly identifiable child and maternal risk traits. PMID: 32293732 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
In conclusion, data show that only specific and continuing updating for health care professionals about drinking habits may have impactful actions to prevent gestational alcohol intake in order to prevent the main cause of mental retardation in western countries. PMID: 32202545 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Rivista di Psichiatria - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Riv Psichiatr Source Type: research
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