Phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/PanAsia in Vietnam 2010 –2014

In this study, we investigated the phylogeny of FMDV O/PanAsia in Vietnam, reconstructing the virus ’ ancestral host species (pig, cattle or buffalo), clinical stage (subclinical carrier or clinically affected) and geographical location. Phylogenetic divergence time estimation and character state reconstruction analyses suggest that movement of viruses between species differ. While inferred tran smissions from cattle to buffalo and pigs and from pigs to cattle are well supported, transmission from buffalo to other species, and from pigs to buffalo may be less frequent. Geographical movements of FMDV O/PanAsia virus appears to occur in all directions within the country, with the South Centra l Coast and the Northeast regions playing a more important role in FMDV O/PanAsia spread. Genetic selection of variants with changes at specific sites within FMDV VP1 coding region was different depending on host groups analyzed. The overall ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes w as greater in pigs compared to cattle and buffalo, whereas a higher number of individual amino acid sites under positive selection were detected in persistently infected, subclinical animals compared to viruses collected from clinically diseased animals. These results provide novel insights to under stand FMDV evolution and its association with viral spread within endemic countries. These findings may support animal health organizations in their endeavor to design animal disease control s...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Recent occurrences of filoviruses and the arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) in overlapping endemic areas of Africa highlight the need for a prophylactic vaccine that would confer protection against all of these viruses that cause lethal hemorrhagic fever (HF). We developed a quadrivalent formulation of VesiculoVax that contains recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins and that also contains a rVSV vector expressing the glycoprotein of a lineage IV strain of LASV. Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated twice with the quadrivalent formulation, followed by challenge 28 days after the b...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Andrew M. Skidmore, Robert S. Adcock, Colleen B. Jonsson, Jennifer E. Golden, Dong-Hoon ChungAbstractVenezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is endemic to the Americas. VEEV outbreaks occur periodically and cause encephalitis in both humans and equids. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines for treatment of VEEV in humans. Our group has previously reported on the development of a benzamidine VEEV inhibitor, ML336, which shows potent antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. In...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Michael T. Meehan, Robert C. Cope, Emma S. McBrydeAbstractPathogen evolution is an imminent threat to global health that has warranted, and duly received, considerable attention within the medical, microbiological and modelling communities. Outbreaks of new pathogens are often ignited by the emergence and transmission of mutant variants descended from wild-type strains circulating in the community. In this work we investigate the stochastic dynamics of the emergence of a novel disease strain, introduced into a population in w...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Wilderness &Environmental MedicineAuthor(s): James H. DiazCryptococcus neoformans, a soil-dwelling fungus found worldwide, can cause cryptococcosis, an opportunistic fungal infection of the lungs and central nervous system. One former member of the C neoformans complex, Cryptococcus gattii, has caused meningitis in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent persons in endemic regions in Africa and Asia. Between 1999 and 2004, C gattii caused outbreaks of human cryptococcosis in unexpected, nonendemic, nontropical regions on Vancouver Island, Canada, and throughout the...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Abstract Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is endemic to the Americas. VEEV outbreaks occur periodically and cause encephalitis in both humans and equids. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines for treatment of VEEV in humans. Our group has previously reported on the development of a benzamidine VEEV inhibitor, ML336, which shows potent antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. In cell culture experiments, ML336 inhibits viral RNA synthesis when added 2-4 h post-infection, and mutations conferring resistance occur within the viral nonstructural ...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
ConclusionAn ST2 LZD- and meticillin-resistant clone was found in the ICU and also in wards with low consumption of LZD. This highlights the need to implement and maintain infection control measures as well as antimicrobial stewardship programmes in all hospital units in order to preserve the efficacy of LZD.
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsIt is of great importance to continue monitoring the disease since it appears to be endemic throughout Spain. There is a need for a common strategy on monitoring and reporting, which would facilitate a more accurate picture on the MSF epidemiological scenario. Entomological information will be of added value.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe multicomponent intervention performed by a multidisciplinary team was effective to eradicate the endemic MDR-Ab.
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
rachuk In 2012, an emerging viral infection was identified in Saudi Arabia that subsequently spread to 27 additional countries globally, though cases may have occurred elsewhere. The virus was ultimately named Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and has been endemic in Saudi Arabia since 2012. As of September 2019, 2468 laboratory-confirmed cases with 851 associated deaths have occurred with a case fatality rate of 34.4%, according to the World Health Organization. An imported case of MERS occurred in South Korea in 2015, stimulating a multi-month outbreak. Several distinguishing factors emerge ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): F. Iacopelli, A. Fanelli, P. Tizzani, E. Berriatua, P. Prieto, C. Martínez-Carrasco, L. León, L. Rossi, M.G. CandelaSummaryThe reliance on multiple hosts to survive is what makes the management and control of multi-host infectious agents challenging. Sarcoptes scabiei causes sarcoptic mange in a wide range of mammal species with ungulates being an important host. Little is known about the role different ungulates play in sustaining endemic transmission of the disease and no study has yet to describe the long-te...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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