Drugs widely used in cancer therapy increase toxicity of chemotherapy in mice

A short-term fast appears to counteract increases in blood sugar caused by common cancer drugs and protect healthy cells in mice from becoming too vulnerable to chemotherapy, according to new research.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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We describe development of a new nanoconstruct composed of gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated to carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) antibody that specifically binds to CAIX, a biomarker of hypoxia, to facilitate targeting tumor hypoxic areas for focused photothermal ablation. Physicochemical characterization studies confirmed the size, shape, monodispersity, surface charge, and serum stability of the GNRs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and cellular binding and uptake studies confirmed successful conjugation of antibody to the GNRs and specificity for CAIX. Near-infrared irradiation of CAIX-overexpressing cells treated with GNR...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Hulin-Curtis SL, Davies JA, Jones R, Hudson E, Hanna L, Chester JD, Parker AL Abstract Ovarian cancer is often termed a silent killer due to the late onset of symptoms. Whilst patients initially respond to chemotherapy, they rapidly develop chemo-resistance. Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are promising anti-cancer agents engineered to "hijack" the unique molecular machinery of cancer cells enabling tumour-selective viral replication. This allows spread to adjacent cells and amplification of oncolysis within the tumour. OAds represent an excellent opportunity for ovarian cancer therapy via intra-pe...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewIn clinical practice, older patients are often undertreated due to underrepresentation in clinical trials and fear of toxicity. Our objective was therefore to review toxicities that are specific to older cancer patients, to review risk factors in order to help physicians guide their decisions, and to review interventions that can be implemented in routine clinical practice to prevent toxicity induced by cancer therapies.Recent FindingsOn the whole, reviews report similar number and frequency as well as similar grade 3 or 4 adverse events between subjects older and younger than 65  years.Su...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Chadwick ML, Lane A, Thomas D, Smith AR, White AR, Davidson D, Feng Y, Boscolo E, Zheng Y, Adams DM, Gupta A, Veillette A, Chow LML Abstract Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of vascular origin that occurs de novo or in the context of previous cancer therapy. Despite multi-modal aggressive treatment including surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation, five-year overall survival remains poor at 35%. Due to its rarity, little is known about its molecular pathology and clinical trials have been extremely difficult to conduct. Development of animal models for rare diseases like angiosarcoma is cri...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Abstract WEE1 kinase regulates the G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint, a critical mechanism for DNA repair in cancer cells that can confer resistance to DNA-damaging agents. We previously reported a series of pyrazolopyrimidinones based on AZD1775, a known WEE1 inhibitor, as an initial investigation into the structural requirements for WEE1 inhibition. Our lead inhibitor demonstrated WEE1 inhibition in the same nanomolar range as AZD1775, and potentiated the effects of cisplatin in medulloblastoma cells, but had reduced single-agent cytotoxicity. These results prompted the development of a more comprehensive series of WEE...
Source: ChemMedChem - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: ChemMedChem Source Type: research
Abstract Nanoparticles- and microspheres-based drug delivery systems (DDSs) have attracted wide attention in cancer therapy; those DDSs that are responsive to tumor environment can selectively identify tumor and normal tissues and therefore have shown enhanced anticancer efficacy and alleviated systemic toxicity. Here, tumor pH-sensitive polymeric microsphere, which is prepared by multiblock poly(L-lactide) with pH-sensitive acetal bonds in the backbone, are employed to efficiently load water-soluble anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX∙HCl, drug loading content: ~10%). The pH-sensitive DOX-loaded holl...
Source: Biomacromolecules - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research
Purpose or review There is a large body of evidence supporting the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) also known as PhotoBioModulation (PBM) when used for the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, or high-dose chemotherapy regimens. This review aims at giving the state of the art of this technique in this indication. Recent findings Recent advances in LLLT/PBM technology, together with a better understanding of mechanisms involved and dosimetric parameters may lead to the management of a broader range of complications associated with cancer ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundThe clinical efficacy observed with inhibitors of programed cell death 1/programed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1/PD-1) in cancer therapy has prompted studies to characterize the immune response in several tumor types, including lung cancer. However, the immunological profile of non –small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is not yet fully characterized, and it may be therapeutically important. The aim of this retrospective study was to characterize and quantify PD-L1/PD-1 expression and tumor-associated immune cells (TAICs) in surgically resected NSCLCs from patien...
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The cost of cancer treatment in Kenya depends on the type of cancer, the modality, cost of medicines and the type of inpatient admission. The greatest contributors are currently the cost of medicines and inpatient admissions. This pilot study can inform future initiatives among the government as well as private and public insurance companies to increase available resources, and better allocate available resources, to more effectively treat patients with cancer in Kenya. We will be monitoring developments and conducting further research. PMID: 29860920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Economics - Category: Health Management Tags: J Med Econ Source Type: research
Abstract The ability of cancers to evade conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, has been attributed to a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are regulated by mechanisms similar to those that regulate normal stem cells (NSCs), including processes involving ubiquitination and deubiquitination enzymes (DUBs) that regulate the expression of various factors, such as Notch, Wnt, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), and Hippo. In this review, we discuss the roles of various DUBs involved in the regulation of core stem cell transcription factors and CSC-related proteins that are implicated in th...
Source: Drug Discovery Today - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Drug Discov Today Source Type: research
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