A 'sci-fi' cancer therapy fights brain tumors, study finds

Doctors say a device worn on the head that makes electric fields improved survival for the first time in more than a decade for people with deadly brain tumors
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news

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Authors: Sun S, Du G, Xue J, Ma J, Ge M, Wang H, Tian J Abstract Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is highly expressed in human glioblastoma and involved in tumor immune escape and resistance to chemotherapy, is clinically correlated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcomes, and is a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma. IDO inhibitors are marginally efficacious as single-agents; therefore, combination with other therapies holds promise for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects and mechanisms of the IDO inhibitor PCC0208009 in combination with temoz...
Source: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol Source Type: research
Authors: Yamamoto Y, Sasaki N, Kumagai K, Takeuchi S, Toyooka T, Otani N, Wada K, Narita Y, Ichimura K, Namba H, Mori K, Tomiyama A Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) still carries a poor prognosis due to the refractoriness against antitumor drugs. Temozolomide (TMZ), one of the few standard therapy drugs against GBM worldwide, has only limited effect due to acquired TMZ resistance of GBM. Therefore, development of novel therapeutic methods to overcome the TMZ resistance of GBM is urgent. The brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ in the human body, so modulation of cholesterol in tumor cells originating from the brain ...
Source: Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) Source Type: research
This issue of Neurologic Clinics is devoted to nervous system tumors as well as neurologic complications of cancer and cancer therapy. Since the last issue devoted to neuro-oncology 10 years ago, increased understanding of the molecular underpinnings of primary brain tumors has led to the addition of molecular parameters for the first time to the WHO classification of central nervous system tumors. Therefore, the first half of this issue focuses on the molecular pathogenesis of gliomas, the reasoning behind the recent changes in WHO classification, and their implications for management of adult and pediatric brain tumors.
Source: Neurologic Clinics - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Preface Source Type: research
CONCLUSION:   Tryptophan metabolism represents a metabolic node in glioblastoma and combining RT with IDO1 inhibition enhances therapeutic response by mitigating RT-induced immune suppression. PMID: 29691296 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
AbstractThe autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the main homeostatic regulatory system of the body. However, this widely distributed neural network can be easily affected by cancer and by the adverse events induced by cancer treatments. In this review, we have classified the ANS complications of cancer into two categories. The first includes direct cancer-related complications, such as primary ANS tumors (pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma or neuroblastoma), as well as autonomic manifestations induced by non-primary ANS tumors (primary brain tumors and metastases). The second comprises indirect ANS complications, which include ...
Source: Clinical Autonomic Research - Category: Research Source Type: research
We report here that such a treatment of PC1/3 KD macrophages drove to the overexpression of proteins mainly involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement. In support of this finding, we found that these cells exhibited a Ca2+ increase after Paclitaxel treatment. This is indicative of a possible depolymerization of microtubules and may therefore reflect an activation of inflammatory pathways in macrophages. In such a way, we found that PC1/3 KD macrophages displayed a repression of the anti-inflammatory pathway STAT3 and secreted more pro-inflammatory cytokines. Extracellular vesicles isolated from these PC1/3 KD cells inhibited g...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Proteomics : MCP - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Cell Proteomics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease Author(s): Xin Yao Qiu, Dian Xing Hu, Wen-Qiang Chen, Ruo Qiao Chen, Shi Rui Qian, Chun Yang Li, Yuan Jun Li, Xin Xin Xiong, Di Liu, Feng Pan, Shang Bin Yu, Xiao Qian Chen Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor due to the lack of effective therapeutic drugs. Cancer therapy targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is of revolutionary. However, the role of intrinsic PD-L1, which determines immune-therapy outcomes, remains largel...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor due to the lack of effective therapeutic drugs. Cancer therapy targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is of revolutionary. However, the role of intrinsic PD-L1, which determines immune-therapy outcomes, remains largely unclear. Here we demonstrated an oncogenic role of PD-L1 via binding and activating Ras in GBM cells. RNA-sequencing transcriptome data revealed that PD-L1 significantly altered gene expression enriched in cell growth/migration/invasion pathways in human GBM cells. PD-L1 o...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research
AbstractCraniotomy surgical site infections are an inherent risk and dreaded complication for the elective brain tumor patient. Sequelae can include delays in resumption in adjuvant treatments for multiple surgeries if staged cranioplasty is pursued. Here, the authors review their experience in operative debridement of surgical site infections with single-stage reimplantation of the salvaged craniotomy bone flap. A prospectively maintained database of a single surgeon ’s neuro-oncology patients from 2009 to 2017 (JRF) was queried to identify 11 patients with surgical site infection after craniotomy for tumor resectio...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSION Cognitive impairment can affect daily functioning, quality of life, and capacity to work in patients with cancer and those in remission. Consequently, cognitive assessment is now an important and necessary part of a comprehensive oncological care plan. Cancer-related cognitive impairment might be due to the direct effects of the cancer itself, nonspecific factors, or comorbid conditions that are independent of the disease and/or due to the adverse effects of the treatment or combination of treatments given for the disease. The prevalence and extent of cognitive impairment associated with cancer is recognized but...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognition Current Issue Neuro oncology Neurology Review cancer chemotherapy cognitive impairment neuropsychological assessment treatment Source Type: research
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