Strategies for Neuroprotection and Myelin Repair

NIH Neuroscience Series Seminar Our ability to move, think, perceive, is dependent on a timely transmission of information among specialized cells called neurons. This information is sent via a series of electrical impulses that travel along specialized structures called " axons " , whose ability to conduct signal is dependent on the presence of " myelin " . Myelin is a fatty substance composed of lipids and proteins that is an integral component of a cell called " oligodendrocyte " . Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the CNS and are essential for brain function. Oligodendrocytes originate from neural stem cells that undergo several changes before reaching the stage of late maturation. Dr. Casaccia ’ s laboratory is working in the following major research areas:• EPIGENETIC REGULATION of gene expression (how the environment affects the ability of DNA to express genes);• MYELIN FORMATION in development and in disease;• MECHANISMS OF NEURODEGENERATION and disease progression in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (towards the discovery of new treatments);• PERSONALIZED MEDICINE (define the effect of genes, diet, exercise, stress and social interaction in therapy responsiveness and disease manifestation. These areas are focused on the following goals: 1) define the steps leading to the acquisition of oligodendrocyte identity, in order to correct potential deficits due to aging and pathological states; 2) understand how my...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: Journals (General) Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video

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AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent demyelinating disease in young adults and despite significant advances in immunotherapy, disease progression still cannot be prevented. Promotion of remyelination, an endogenous repair mechanism resulting in the formation of new myelin sheaths around demyelinated axons, represents a promising new treatment approach. However, remyelination frequently fails in MS lesions, which can in part be attributed to impaired differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells into mature, myelinating oligodendrocytes. The reasons for impaired oligodendroglial differentiation and de...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In conclusion, using a large cohort with rich health and DNA methylation data, we provide the first comparison of six major epigenetic measures of biological ageing with respect to their associations with leading causes of mortality and disease burden. DNAm GrimAge outperformed the other measures in its associations with disease data and associated clinical traits. This may suggest that predicting mortality, rather than age or homeostatic characteristics, may be more informative for common disease prediction. Thus, proteomic-based methods (as utilised by DNAm GrimAge) using large, physiologically diverse protein sets for p...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we examined the effects of oxytocin on the Aβ-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity in mice. To investigate the effect of oxytocin on synaptic plasticity, we prepared acute hippocampal slices for extracellular recording and assessed long-term potentiation (LTP) with perfusion of the Aβ active fragment (Aβ25-35) in the absence and presence of oxytocin. We found that oxytocin reversed the impairment of LTP induced by Aβ25-35 perfusion in the mouse hippocampus. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the selective oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899. Furthermore, the tr...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, this line of research may yield an alternative to the remyelinating drugs currently being studied.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we used markers to monitor the formation of SGs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, in addition to acute heat stress, SG formation could also be triggered by dietary changes, such as starvation and dietary restriction (DR). We found that HSF-1 is required for the SG formation in response to acute heat shock and starvation but not DR, whereas the AMPK-eEF2K signaling is required for starvation and DR-induced SG formation but not heat shock. Moreover, our data suggest that this AMPK-eEF2K pathway-mediated SG formation is required for lifespan extension by DR, but dispensable for the longevity by reduced ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) are unable to prevent inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system (CNS), and none directly promote repair. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for therapies that can arrest and reverse the persistent accumulation of disabilities associated with progressive forms of MS (P-MS). Preclinical research has revealed an unexpected ability of neural stem cell (NSC) therapies to provide neurotrophic support and inhibit detrimental host immune responses in vivo following transplantation into the chronicall...
Source: Trends in Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Trends Mol Med Source Type: research
(Natural News) Stem cell therapy, also known as regenerative medicine, is a type of treatment that harnesses the power of stem cells to promote the repair of diseased, dysfunctional or damaged tissue. Stem cells, which serve as the body’s raw materials, are the earliest form of all cells in the human body. Prior to their maturation...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
AbstractAdipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have neuroprotective effects, and their repair ability has been approved in neurodegenerative studies. Pregnenolone as a neurosteroid plays significant roles in neurogenesis. We aimed to consider the effect of ADSCs and pregnenolone injection on the multiple sclerosis (MS) model created by cuprizone. Male Wistar rats (n = 36) were fed with an ordinary diet or a diet with cuprizone (0.6%) for 3 weeks. H-ADSCs were taken from patients with lipoaspirate surgery. The rats were divided into six groups (n = 6): healthy, MS, sham, pregnenolone injection, ADSCs...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) for which there is no cure. In MS, encephalitogenic T cells infiltrate the CNS causing demyelination and neuroinflammation; however, little is known about the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in CNS tissue repair. Transplantation of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs and NPCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy to promote repair through cell replacement, although recent findings suggest transplanted NSCs also instruct endogenous repair mechanisms. We have recently described that dampe...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
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