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Swallowing Preparation and Execution: Insights from a Delayed-Response Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study

AbstractThe present study sought to elucidate the functional contributions of sub-regions of the swallowing neural network in swallowing preparation and swallowing motor execution. Seven healthy volunteers participated in a delayed-response, go, no-go functional magnetic resonance imaging study involving four semi-randomly ordered activation tasks: (i) “prepare to swallow,” (ii) “voluntary saliva swallow,” (iii) “do not prepare to swallow,” and (iv) “do not swallow.” Results indicated that brain activation was significantly greater during swallowing preparation, than during swallowing execution, within the rostral and intermediate anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally, premotor cortex (left >  right hemisphere), pericentral cortex (left >  right hemisphere), and within several subcortical nuclei including the bilateral thalamus, caudate, and putamen. In contrast, activation within the bilateral insula and the left dorsolateral pericentral cortex was significantly greater in relation to swallowing execution, compared with swallowing preparation. Still other regions, including a more inferior ventrolateral pericentral area, and adjoining Brodmann area 43 bilaterally, and the supplementary motor area, were activated in relation to both swallowing preparation and execution. These findings support the view that the preparation, and subsequent execution, of swallowing are mediated by a cascading pattern of ac...
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Authors: Cao JM, Zhang JT, Yang DL, Yang YP, Xia HH, Yang L Abstract BACKGROUND Not all patients with spinal cord compression due to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) have clinical symptoms and signs. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the imaging findings in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with CSM with mild to moderate cervical spinal cord compression. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective clinical study included 68 patients. Group A (n=30) had no symptoms and signs; group B (n=38) had symptoms and signs of cervical myelopathy. The age, sex, body mass index (BMI), history of steroid tre...
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
ConclusionOur findings suggest that SVM, using features from a combination of diffusion models, improves prediction accuracy for differentiation of benign versus malignant breast tumors, and may further assist in subtyping of breast cancer.Level of Evidence: 3Technical Efficacy: Stage 3J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017.
Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
We report a 68-year-old man who presented with transient ideomotor apraxia and mildly elevated soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels. He was initially diagnosed with aortogenic embolic stroke. He developed rapidly progressive neurological manifestations with enlargement of brain lesions on brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and died 3 months after symptom onset. The diagnosis of IVL could not be made by random skin biopsy, but was finally made at autopsy. For the early diagnosis, sufficient random skin biopsy or brain biopsy should be planned when suspected.Case Rep Neurol 2017;9:234 –240
Source: Case Reports in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
We report a case of a male patient with stroke caused by atrial fibrillation (AF) due to thyrotoxicosis. At hospital admission, he presented hypertension and AF. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a right-side ischemic area. The thyrotoxicosis was confirmed by thyroid function and thyroid scintigraphy that showed goiter with diffuse hypercaptation. The patient was treated with tapazole and total thyroidectomy, and pathological findings suggested Graves ’ disease. Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased supraventricular ectopic activity in patients with a normal heart, and may be an important causal link betwee...
Source: Case Reports in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionPatients with BPD have greater frontolimbic asymmetry than healthy individuals.
Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Three days after the surgery, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a gross total resection and adequate third ventriculostomy flow. One year after the surgery, the patient was asymptomatic. Neuroendoscopy has evolved towards minimally invasiveness, and in selected cases is an equally effective surgical approach to ventricular lesions. It provides minimal cerebral cortex disruption and vascular manipulation. PMID: 29026673 [PubMed]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This report discusses the possible underlying etiologies for the bilateral caudate infarcts and necrosed flaps including bacterial meningitis with associated local vasospasm of nearby vessels resulting in infarction. This case emphasizes the importance of concise management of postendoscopic CSF leak and discusses the guidelines regarding antimicrobial therapy and the management of lumbar drains. PMID: 29026671 [PubMed]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Chronic spinal subdural hematoma can mimic intradural extramedullary spinal tumors even in the absence of trauma and/or coagulopathies. PMID: 29026667 [PubMed]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: On the basis of clinical presentation and radiological appearances, schwannoma in unusual sites can easily be mistaken for meningiomas; immunochemistry plays an important role in differentiating them. Till date, to the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case of schwannoma mimicking meningioma in parasagittal location. PMID: 29026664 [PubMed]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: EE has moderate sensitivity and specificity for high-grade gliomas. However, larger sample studies are required for further validation of this observations. PMID: 29026663 [PubMed]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
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