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Swallowing Preparation and Execution: Insights from a Delayed-Response Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study

AbstractThe present study sought to elucidate the functional contributions of sub-regions of the swallowing neural network in swallowing preparation and swallowing motor execution. Seven healthy volunteers participated in a delayed-response, go, no-go functional magnetic resonance imaging study involving four semi-randomly ordered activation tasks: (i) “prepare to swallow,” (ii) “voluntary saliva swallow,” (iii) “do not prepare to swallow,” and (iv) “do not swallow.” Results indicated that brain activation was significantly greater during swallowing preparation, than during swallowing execution, within the rostral and intermediate anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally, premotor cortex (left >  right hemisphere), pericentral cortex (left >  right hemisphere), and within several subcortical nuclei including the bilateral thalamus, caudate, and putamen. In contrast, activation within the bilateral insula and the left dorsolateral pericentral cortex was significantly greater in relation to swallowing execution, compared with swallowing preparation. Still other regions, including a more inferior ventrolateral pericentral area, and adjoining Brodmann area 43 bilaterally, and the supplementary motor area, were activated in relation to both swallowing preparation and execution. These findings support the view that the preparation, and subsequent execution, of swallowing are mediated by a cascading pattern of ac...
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Well-established free-handed techniques —unconstrained by a needle-guide—that may be used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided abdominal biopsies and interventions are not commonly used for MRI-guided breast biopsies. MRI-guided interventions in the breast are performed using one of two available biopsy platforms: the grid syst em and the pillar-and-post system (1–4). The grid system requires needle placement to be orthogonal to the compression plate, and the pillar-and-post system only accommodates needle angulation up to 30 degrees.
Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
BackgroundSimultaneous acquisition of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and diagnostic images is challenging in contrast‐enhanced upper abdominal MRI. PurposeTo evaluate the image quality of MRA of the abdomen acquired simultaneously with diagnostic MR images, and to compare the contrast effect, conspicuity of aortic branches, and pancreatic lesions in MRA between gadobutrol and gadoterate meglumine. Study TypeProspective. PopulationEighty‐eight patients with known and suspected upper abdominal disease. Field Strength/Sequences3T/4D‐eTHRIVE (T1‐weighted fat‐suppressed 3D fast gradient echo) for multiarterial p...
Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
sen J Abstract Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a negative impact on psychosocial functioning and disease outcome. It is therefore important to investigate the pathophysiology underlying negative symptoms as this may aid the development of better treatment. In the current article, examples from studies investigating neural correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia are given. Investigations using both structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging are presented at different levels of symptomatology descriptions, from the more heterogenous construct of negative symptoms to more single discrete sy...
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research
We present a case of symptomatic major thromboembolism after CAS. The intraprocedural angiogram showed extraordinary slow filling of the contrast medium into the plaque, which we named as "crevice sign." An 83-year-old man presented repeat right amaurosis fugax for 6 months. The radiological examinations revealed 85% stenosis of the origin of the right internal carotid artery. The patient underwent right CAS. The procedure was performed without any problems; however, the angiogram showed slow filling of contrast medium into the carotid plaque through the stent (crevice sign). Sixty minutes later in the ward, the ...
Source: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Nagoya J Med Sci Source Type: research
AbstractThe aim of this report was to assess routine clinical brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relation to clinical characteristics and disease prognosis. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis patients were consecutively recruited from West China Hospital between October 1, 2011 and April 1, 2016. Brain MRI findings of 106 patients were analysed, and outcomes were assessed at 4, 8, and 12  months after discharge from the hospital using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). An MRI of the brain was normal in 52/106 (49.1%) patients and abnormal or atypical in 54/106 (50.9%) patients. The initi...
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion Our findings suggest that elevated FG levels, even within the prediabetic range, might already have some harmful effects on GMV.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Conclusion Women with pelvic symptoms had a slight but significant preference for TVUS over MRI. Identifying specific distressing aspects of each test and patient factors contributing to negative perceptions can direct improvement in both test environment and patient preparation. Improved patient experience may increase imaging value.
Source: Academic Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, Volume 47 Author(s): Menachem Sadeh, Ron Dabby Hand weakness and wasting in the setting of mid-cervical spondylosis and disc herniation without radiological evidence for compression of the C8 or T1 roots has been rarely reported. We retrospectively studied the data of patients with hand weakness and mid-cervical spondylosis. The clinical and radiological findings were compared to a control group of patients with weakness of the arm or forearm muscles and similar mid-cervical spondylosis. We found 19 patients with weakness and atrophy of the intrinsic ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this report, we present a case of an adult patient with a mature teratoma of the conus medullaris. The patient was a 29-year-old postpartum female patient who developed unexplained urinary retention. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed an intradural partly enhancing mixed cystic and solid lesion with intralesional intrinsic T1 hyperintense components that were suppressed on fat suppressed sequences, inseparable from the conus medullaris. Surgical resection was performed and histopathology findings were consistent with a mature teratoma. The patient made a complete recovery.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusion These findings suggest that epilepsy may be associated with significantly asymmetric distribution of PVSs in the brain. Furthermore, the region of maximal asymmetry of the PVSs may help provide localization or confirmation of the seizure onset zone.
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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