Swallowing Preparation and Execution: Insights from a Delayed-Response Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study

AbstractThe present study sought to elucidate the functional contributions of sub-regions of the swallowing neural network in swallowing preparation and swallowing motor execution. Seven healthy volunteers participated in a delayed-response, go, no-go functional magnetic resonance imaging study involving four semi-randomly ordered activation tasks: (i) “prepare to swallow,” (ii) “voluntary saliva swallow,” (iii) “do not prepare to swallow,” and (iv) “do not swallow.” Results indicated that brain activation was significantly greater during swallowing preparation, than during swallowing execution, within the rostral and intermediate anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally, premotor cortex (left >  right hemisphere), pericentral cortex (left >  right hemisphere), and within several subcortical nuclei including the bilateral thalamus, caudate, and putamen. In contrast, activation within the bilateral insula and the left dorsolateral pericentral cortex was significantly greater in relation to swallowing execution, compared with swallowing preparation. Still other regions, including a more inferior ventrolateral pericentral area, and adjoining Brodmann area 43 bilaterally, and the supplementary motor area, were activated in relation to both swallowing preparation and execution. These findings support the view that the preparation, and subsequent execution, of swallowing are mediated by a cascading pattern of ac...
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

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Conclusion: We think this rare case could promote a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system within intradural space. PMID: 30533275 [PubMed]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
Conclusion: Aiming to achieve longer progression-free survival in cases of GS, we recommend resecting all portions of the mass as much as possible, so named en bloc resection, and then refer the patients for appropriate and timely chemoradiotherapy. PMID: 30533274 [PubMed]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
Conclusions: Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle is a very rare tumor that is difficult to diagnose on routine neuroimaging. Accurate diagnosis requires detailed analysis of neuroimaging and immunohistochemical studies using CD34 and TTF-1 staining. PMID: 30533273 [PubMed]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
In conclusion, ROS production and MAPKs signaling pathways contribute to GdCl3‑induced caspase cascade‑mediated apoptosis in C6 cells. Our findings provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of GdCl3 in rat glioma C6 cells. PMID: 30535448 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Yamout BI, El-Ayoubi NK, Nicolas J, El Kouzi Y, Khoury SJ, Zeineddine MM Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab in multiple sclerosis in a clinical practice setting. Methods: Clinical data for all adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with off-label rituximab at a single MS center in Lebanon between March 2008 and April 2017 were retrospectively collected from medical charts. The main efficacy outcomes assessed were annualized relapse rate (ARR) and proportion of patients free from relapses, disability progression, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
In this report, we describe a case of IgG4-RD arising from bladder wall. This patient had a past history of autoimmune pancreatitis and presented with incidental bladder tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging showed low signal intensity tumor on T2-weighted image, and no invasion to the muscular layer. We performed transurethral resection. Pathological findings showed that there were chronic inflammatory changes infiltrates under the epithelium, and IgG4-positive plasma cells were scattered throughout the lesion. They met the pathological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. We think this is the first case of IgG4-RD arising from a...
Source: Urologia Internationalis - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Patients with PCNs under surveillance have a similar prevalence of abdominal pain when compared to a matched population of controls. Abdominal pain might not correlate with radiological signs of malignancy.Dig Surg
Source: Digestive Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusion: In our sample, the overall malignancy rate was 21%. However, to improve the assessment of these results, it is necessary to correlate them with the surgical data and with data from the follow-up of benign cases.Resumo Objetivo: Demonstrar a frequ ência de malignidade e as características histológicas das lesões encontradas em pacientes submetidas a biópsia a vácuo guiada por ressonância magnética (RM). Materiais e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, realizado no período de abril de 2008 a dezembro de 2016, de biópsia a vácuo guiada p o...
Source: Radiologia Brasileira - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: In the brachial plexus, ultrasound can be used in the assessment of the cervical nerve roots, as well as of the upper and middle trunks, although it provides limited visualization of the remaining segments. Ultrasound and MRI showed a high level of agreement for the visualization of the C6, C7, and middle trunk segments.Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a efic ácia do exame de ultrassonografia (US) na visualização do plexo braquial e avaliar o método comparativamente à ressonância magnética (RM). Materiais e Métodos: Estudo da anatomia do plexo braquial pela US e RM...
Source: Radiologia Brasileira - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Abstract Primary retroperitoneal masses constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon lesions and represent a challenge due to overlapping imaging findings. Most are malignant lesions. Although they are more prevalent in adults, they can occur at any age. Such lesions are classified as primary when they do not originate from a specific retroperitoneal organ and are divided, according to the image findings, into two major groups: solid and cystic. The clinical findings are nonspecific and vary depending on the location of the lesion in relation to adjacent structures, as well as on its behavior. The main imaging methods used...
Source: Radiologia Brasileira - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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