The Use of Brain Stimulation in Dysphagia Management
AbstractDysphagia is common sequela of brain injury with as many as 50% of patients suffering from dysphagia following stroke. Currently, the majority of guidelines for clinical practice in the management of dysphagia focus on the prevention of complications while any natural recovery takes place. Recently, however, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have started to attract attention and are applied to investigate both the physiology of swallowing and influences on dysphagia. TMS allows for painless stimulation of the brain through an intact skull —an effect which would normally be impossible with electrical currents due to the high resistance of the skull. By comparison, tDCS involves passing a small electric current (usually under 2 mA) produced by a current generator over the scalp and cranium external to the brain. Initial studies used these techniques to better understand the physiological mechanisms of swallowing in healthy subjects. More recently, a number of studies have investigated the efficacy of these techniques in the management of neurogenic dysphagia with mixed results. Controversy still exists as to which site, streng th and duration of stimulation yields the greatest improvement in dysphagia. And while multiple studies have suggested promising effects of NIBS, more randomised control trials with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate...
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Authors: Fierini F, Poggesi A, Pantoni L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leukoaraiosis (LA) is one of the neuroimaging features of cerebral small vessel disease and is associated with poor long-term prognosis. Areas covered: This narrative review focuses on the predictive role of LA on the evolution of the ischemic brain damage and on the clinical outcome in the subacute phase of stroke and in the short-term period afterwards. Expert commentary: In acute stroke, LA is associated with a less favorable fate of brain infarct and is a marker of increased risk of thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic transformation. The impaired cerebra...
Most of us already notice obvious changes in our bodies such as body weight, blood pressure, and waist circumference. During the Undoctored process you will discover that you could also benefit from tracking some important lab values. These lab values will reflect reemerging health in blood sugar levels, triglycerides, and factors that reflect risk for heart disease, stroke, and other conditions. Here are lab values to consider tracking: Fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, fasting insulin—all reflecting blood sugar and insulin-resistance status NMR lipoproteins (NMR LipoProfile) or other advanced lipoprotein testing ...
This commentary is on the original articles by Greenham et al. To view these papers visit https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.13387 and https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.13519.
Transradial access (TRA) for noncoronary interventions has gained increasing popularity during the past several years. A retrospective analysis of 1,500 cases (1) demonstrated a major complication rate of 0.13%, with no reported cases of stroke. TRA has several advantages, including decreased risk of life-threatening bleeding and patient comfort. However, TRA has the associated complication of stroke that is not seen with subdiaphragmatic interventions performed via transfemoral access (TFA). Here we present a case of stroke after a TRA for yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization.
Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke caused by a major vessel occlusion is now the standard of care following the recent publication of large randomized controlled trials (1). However, as many as 20% of patients have a tandem extracranial carotid artery stenosis or occlusion (2). This group of patients responds poorly to intravenous thrombolysis, has lower angiographic recanalization rates, and, as a result, has worse functional outcomes (3).
STROKES can be caused by high cholesterol levels. However, eating a plant-based vegetarian diet could help.
(University of Houston) Researchers from the University of Houston have shown for the first time that the use of a brain-computer interface augmented with a virtual walking avatar can control gait, suggesting the protocol may help patients recover the ability to walk after stroke, some spinal cord injuries and certain other gait disabilities.