Novel drug delivery beats swine flu at gene level

Scientists have elaborated a new approach to deliver anti-viral RNAi to target cells against H1N1 influenza virus infection. Drug encapsulating via a combination of layer-by-layer technique and sol-gel chemistry allows beating swine flu at the gene level. The first test showed an 80% drop in virus protein synthesis.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Recently, a study in this journal suggested that the 2014 H1N1 pandemic 2009 (H1N1/pdm2009) had gene communication with 2016/2017 H3N2 1. The influenza A H1N1/pdm2009 virus, a novel swine-derived, triple reassortant virus, was rapidly transmitted between humans and spread to 168 countries, resulting in over 123,000 human deaths globally from March to December 2009 2, 3. Since then, it has replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 and circulated as a seasonal virus along with the H3N2 virus, posing substantial risks to human populations 4, creating an opportunity for coinfection and therefore recombination or reassortment between them.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Recently, a study in this journal suggested that the 2014 H1N1 pandemic 2009 (H1N1/pdm2009) had gene communication with 2016/2017 H3N2.1 The influenza A H1N1/pdm2009 virus, a novel swine-derived, triple reassortant virus, was rapidly transmitted between humans and spread to 168 countries, resulting in over 123,000 human deaths globally from March to December 2009.2,3 Since then, it has replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 and circulated as a seasonal virus along with the H3N2 virus, posing substantial risks to human populations,4 creating an opportunity for coinfection and therefore recombination or reassortment between them.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed. Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are pathogens of global concern in both human and veterinary medicine (Webster et al., 1992; Stöhr, 2002; Olsen et al., 2006; Wiethoelter et al., 2015). Wild birds are well-described hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and longitudinal surveillance studies have demonstrated a plethora of low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) circulating in wild...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
María Maximina B. Moreno-Altamirano1*, Simon E. Kolstoe2 and Francisco Javier Sánchez-García1* 1Laboratorio de Inmunorregulación, Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico 2School of Health Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom Over the last decade, there has been significant advances in the understanding of the cross-talk between metabolism and immune responses. It is now evident that immune cell effector function strongly depends on the metabolic pathway in w...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract We performed swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance in Midwest USA and isolated 100 SIVs including endemic and reassortant H1 and H3 viruses with 2009 pandemic H1N1 genes. To determine virus evolution when different genotypes and subtypes of influenza A viruses circulating in the same swine herd, a virus survival experiment was conducted in pigs mimicking field situations. Five different SIVs were used to infect five pigs individually, then two groups of sentinel pigs were introduced to investigate virus transmission. Results showed that each virus replicated efficiently in lungs of each infected pig, b...
Source: Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
This study describes the development and validation of a TaqMan based - one-step multiplex RT-qPCR to discriminate the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the three major IAV subtypes circulating in pigs in Brazil. The RT-qPCR assays presented 100% (95.7-100, CI 95%) of diagnostic sensitivity in the analysis of 85 IAVs, previously characterized by sequencing. The limits of detection ranged from 5.09 × 101 to 5.09 × 103 viral RNA copies/μL. For the analytical specificity, 73 pig samples collected during 2017 and 2018 were analyzed, resulting in the identification of the subtyp...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an effective control measure. PMID: 30914224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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