Lung Cancer Therapy Based on Genomics Improves SurvivalLung Cancer Therapy Based on Genomics Improves Survival

Drugs that target genetic mutations found in lung adenocarcinomas may be more successful in treating patients than using a one-size-fits-all approach, such as chemotherapy. Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines - Category: Pathology Tags: Hematology-Oncology News Source Type: news

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Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) functions as a crucial regulator of metastasis in lung cancer. The aim of this study is to unravel the underlying mechanisms of lncRNA MALAT1 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A cohort of 36 NSCLC tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues was collected postoperatively from patients with NSCLC. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of MALAT1 in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Cell migration and invasion were monitored by wound healing assay and transwell invasion assay. Western blot was used to detect the expression ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research
The immune regulatory enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) suppresses T cell responses and may reduce efficacy of therapies targeting immune checkpoints such as programmed death receptor-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1). Early phase clinical trials combining IDO-1 and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have shown some promise in non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). However, the coexpression of IDO-1 and PD-L1 has not been thoroughly investigated, and the potential for IDO-1 immunohistochemical expression as a therapeutic biomarker is unknown. One hundred two cases of NSCLC (51 adenocarcinomas, 9 adenosquamous carci...
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Downregulation of GSDMD attenuates tumor proliferation via the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and inhibition of EGFR/Akt signaling and predicts a good prognosis in non‑small cell lung cancer. Oncol Rep. 2018 Aug 07;: Authors: Gao J, Qiu X, Xi G, Liu H, Zhang F, Lv T, Song Y Abstract Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is a newly discovered pyroptosis executive protein, which can be cleaved by inflammatory caspases and is essential for secretion of IL‑1β, making it a critical mediator of inflammation. However, the precise role of GSDMD in carcinogenesis remains nearly unknown. Considering the v...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
Calpain 2 knockdown promotes cell apoptosis and restores gefitinib sensitivity through epidermal growth factor receptor/protein kinase B/survivin signaling. Oncol Rep. 2018 Aug 02;: Authors: Zhang G, Fang T, Chang M, Li J, Hong Q, Bai C, Zhou J Abstract Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‑specific drug, is effective for ~1 year, after which resistance is inevitable. Calpain 2 (CAPN2) is known to serve a role in the drug response and resistance in certain cancer therapies. However, the full function of CAPN2, particularly in non‑small cell lung cancer, has not yet be...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Shibata N, Matsumoto K, Kitamura S, Sakashita A, Kizawa Y, Hirata KI Abstract A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to an acute onset of consciousness disturbance, aphasia and left hemiplegia. Computed tomography revealed multiple systemic infarctions, including brain, kidney and spleen. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed vegetations attached to the mitral valve leaflets, which was suspected to be the embolic source. Repeated blood cultures were negative, and advanced lung cancer was incidentally revealed by computed tomography. She was then diagnosed with nonbacterial thrombotic endo...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Authors: Tsuchiya K, Karayama M, Yasui H, Hozumi H, Suzuki Y, Furuhashi K, Enomoto N, Fujisawa T, Nakamura Y, Inui N, Suda T Abstract A 53-year-old man with advanced lung adenocarcinoma harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletion received erlotinib. After 12 months of disease control with erlotinib monotherapy, leptomeningeal metastases (LM) occurred. A cerebrospinal fluid examination demonstrated a pre-existing EGFR exon 19 deletion. Bevacizumab was combined with erlotinib, and the LM improved. After six months of combination therapy, however, the LM was exacerbated. A re-examination of the ...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Authors: Sato M, Matsui A, Shimoyama Y, Omote N, Morise M, Hase T, Tanaka I, Suzuki K, Hasegawa Y Abstract Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) transformation has been identified as a mechanism of resistance to first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), gefitinib or erlotinib, in EGFR-mutated lung cancer. However, whether second- or third-generation TKIs can overcome resistance due to SCC transformation remains unclear. We herein report an EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma undergoing transformation into SCC that exhibited a durable response to afatinib, which is a second-gener...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Acquired hemophilia A is a rare but potentially severe disease, which may be idiopathic or linked to a solid tumor. The severity of AHA depends on both the volume of hemorrhage and the presence of associated diseases. PMID: 30098880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research
Abstract The altered expression of homeobox (HOX)A11 has been observed in various malignant tumor types, but it has remained to be determined in human lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). In the present study, the expression of HOXA11 in LUAD and the potential associated mechanisms were assessed. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Oncomine microarrays were gathered and in‑house polymerase chain reaction data were produced to investigate the altered expression of HOXA11 in LUAD and its association with various clinicopathological characteristics. Genes co‑expressed with HOXA11 were also identified by searching the cB...
Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Int J Mol Med Source Type: research
This study may provide a greater understanding of LAC metastasis and shed new light on the mechanisms by which the 15(S)-HETE/STAT3 pathway is related to this disease.
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
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