In a sample of blood, researchers probe for cancer clues

(University of California - Berkeley) One day, patients may be able to monitor their body's response to cancer therapy just by having their blood drawn. A new study, led by bioengineers at UC Berkeley, has taken an important step in that direction by measuring a panel of cancer proteins in rare, individual tumor cells that float in the blood.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Adoptive transfer of T cell receptor–engineered (TCR-engineered) T cells is a promising approach in cancer therapy but needs improvement for more effective treatment of solid tumors. While most clinical approaches have focused on CD8+ T cells, the importance of CD4+ T cells in mediating tumor regression has become apparent. Regarding shared (self) tumor antigens, it is unclear whether the human CD4+ T cell repertoire has been shaped by tolerance mechanisms and lacks highly functional TCRs suitable for therapy. Here, TCRs against the tumor-associated antigen NY-ESO-1 were isolated either from human CD4+ T cells or fro...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: Journal of Pharmacological SciencesAuthor(s): Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki YamawakiAbstractType IV collagen is a main component of basement membrane extracellular matrix. Canstatin, a non-collagenous C-terminal fragment of type IV collagen α2 chain, was firstly identified as an endogenous anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor factor, which also has an anti-lymphangiogenic effect. Then, canstatin has been widely investigated as a novel target molecule for cancer therapy. The anti-angiogenic effect of canstatin may be also useful for the treatment of ocular neovasculariz...
Source: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Silurus asotus egg lectin (SAL) is an α-galactoside-binding protein, isolated from the egg of catfish. It belongs to the rhamnose-binding lectin family that binds to Gb3 glycan (Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc). SAL has resulted in the induction of early apoptosis in the Raji cell line, which is a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line expressing Gb3. The apoptosis was characterized by i) increased externalization of phosphatidylserin via multidrug resistance 1 P-glycoprotein (MDR1 P-gp), and ii) reduced cell size through the activation of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3. Although the incorporation of prop...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
Abstract The appearance of immune checkpoint inhibitors has been a major turning point in cancer therapy. The success of immune checkpoint therapy has revolutionized the field of cancer therapy, and immunotherapy has joined the cancer treatment ranks as a pillar. To induce effective anti-tumor immune responses, it is necessary both to enhance the activity of immune cells and to block immune suppression by tumor cells. Carrier type drug delivery systems based on nanobiotechnology (nano DDS) represent a potentially useful technology for efficiently achieving both: enhancement of the activity of immune cells and bloc...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: BiointerfacesAuthor(s): Lijuan Wen, Yingwen Hu, Tingting Meng, Yanan Tan, Mengdan Zhao, Suhuan Dai, Hong Yuan, Fuqiang HuAbstractThe development of advanced gene delivery carriers with stimuli-responsive release manner for tumor therapeutics is desirable, since they can exclusively release the therapeutic gene via their structural changes in response to the specific stimuli of the target site. Moreover, interactions between macrophages and drug delivery systems (DDSs) seriously impair the treatment efficiency of DDSs, thus macrophages uptake...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Chem. Commun., 2018, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C8CC07768A, CommunicationXiao-Chen Dong, Chaolong Wu, Xiaoyu Huang, Yunyun Tang, Wanyue Xiao, Liguo Sun, Jinjun Shao A NIR photosensitizer pyrrolopyrrole Aza-BODIPY (PPAB) was straightforwardly synthesized. Using PPAB nanoparticles as photothermal agent, photothermal imaging and NIR fluorescence imaging can be achieved in vivo. And photothermal ablation of... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
an-Barmatz Oncogenic properties, along with the metabolic reprogramming necessary for tumour growth and motility, are acquired by cancer cells. Thus, tumour metabolism is becoming a target for cancer therapy. Here, cancer cell metabolism was tackled by silencing the expression of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a mitochondrial protein that controls cell energy, as well as metabolic and survival pathways and that is often over-expressed in many cancers. We demonstrated that silencing VDAC1 expression using human-specific siRNA (si-hVDAC1) inhibited cancer cell growth, both in vitro and in mouse xenograft mode...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
PET imaging tracers that track breast cancer enzymes could help guide treatment...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: SNMMI: Fluciclovine-PET changes prostate treatment Mammi-PET finds tiny breast lesions -- but could improve Fused MRI and PET improve specificity of breast MRI PEM performs well against breast MRI, whole-body PET NCPIC to provide PET breast scans for uninsured
Source: Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Trends in Pharmacological SciencesAuthor(s): R.J. TesiThe myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) is the ‘queen bee’ of the tumor microenvironment. MDSCs protect the cancer from the patient’s immune system, make the tumor resistant to immunotherapy, and allow the tumor to thrive while the patient withers away. Eliminating MDSCs should improve response rates to cancer therapy and patient survival.
Source: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: International Journal of PharmaceuticsAuthor(s): Nisar Ul Khaliq, Dal Yong Park, Byeong Min Yun, Da Hye Yang, Yong Woo Jung, Jae Hong Seo, Chang Soon Hwang, Soon Hong YukAbstractPluronics are triblock copolymers, in which two hydrophilic poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) blocks are connected via a hydrophobic poly propylene oxide (PPO) block. Because of their low molecular weight and high content of PEO, Pluronics have demonstrated the micellization phenomenon, which is dependent on temperature and/or concentration. With an understanding of micellization phenomenon in mor...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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