Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Clinical Applications: Therapeutics
The number and type of neuropsychiatric conditions being treated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is ever increasing. In addition, the parameters utilized to treat these conditions are ever evolving. In this chapter, we explore the evidence concerning the efficacy of TMS to treat a number of psychiatric and physiological conditions: including depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, post traumatic stress disorder, chronic pain, tinnitus, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease. In addition, we outline the most commonly utilized protocols and parameters to treat each of the above conditions.
This study used an operant conditioning animal model to examine the interaction between tinnitus and auditory vigilant attention as well as auditory selective attention. Tinnitus was induced in 90-day-old rats by a unilateral exposure to band-limited noise (120 dB, SPL). Tinnitus testing began 90 days following exposure; afterward animals were divided into 3 groups: Unexposed controls without tinnitus, Exposed without tinnitus, and Exposed with tinnitus. Tinnitus was evident in the vicinity of 20 kHz. Vigilant attention was quantified by the behavioral (operant) response to unpredictable sound transitions signaling changes...
In conclusion, hindlimb rhythmic and alternated pedaling of different durations affects distinct dorsal and ventral spinal networks by modulating excitatory and inhibitory input to motoneurons. These results suggest defining new parameters for effective neurorehabilitation that better exploits spinal circuit activity.
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Dionéia Araldi, Luiz F. Ferrari, Jon D. LevineAbstractStimulation of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) on nociceptors with fentanyl can produce hyperalgesia (opioid-induced hyperalgesia, OIH) and hyperalgesic priming, a model of transition to chronic pain. We investigated if local and systemic administration of biased MOR agonists (PZM21 and TRV130), which preferentially activate G-protein over β-arrestin translocation, and have been reported to minimize some opioid side effects, also produces OIH and priming. Injected intradermally (10...
ConclusionsUsing a comprehensive all-payer cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients in New York State we demonstrated that patients treated in a hub-and-spoke model were not associated with worse outcomes than patients receiving care exclusively in comprehensive institutions. This needs to be taken into consideration when considering acute emergency services in this setting.
CONCLUSIONS: There are significant knowledge gaps on effective self-management interventions for pain and depression post-SCI. There is a need to develop interventions that are multi-faceted, which include both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies to address multimorbidity. PMID: 30335601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Keener JD, Patterson BM, Orvets N, Chamberlain AM Abstract Degenerative rotator cuff tears are the most common cause of shoulder pain and have a strong association with advanced aging. Considerable variation exists in surgeons' perceptions on the recommended treatment of patients with painful rotator cuff tears. Natural history studies have better outlined the risks of tear enlargement, progression of muscle degeneration, and decline in the function over time. This information combined with the known factors potentially influencing the rate of successful tendon healing such as age, tear size, and severity ...
DISCUSSION: The routine PE of FH specimens after arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures is not warranted and uneconomic. Sending the FH for PE, only when clinically indicated, rather than routine, will result in notable savings for the healthcare system. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV. PMID: 30334845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION: Owing to their important roles in physiological functions of brain and in the pathological conditions following ischemic stroke, the astrocytes might be a potential but promising therapeutic target for treating the ischemic stroke in the future. PMID: 30335519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ConclusionsAlternative approaches for capturing the effects of weight status in the preschool years on preference-based HRQoL outcomes should be tested. The application of the QALY framework to economic evaluations of obesity-related interventions in young children should also consider longitudinal effects over the life-course.Clinical Trial Registration The Healthy Beginnings Trial was registered with the Australian Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRNO12607000168459).
ConclusionsThis study has shown that psychosocial dimensions of HRQoL have the greatest ability to capture the impact of depression when compared with dimensions of capability wellbeing and SWB. Some MAUIs, such as the AQoL-8D, are sensitive to most distinguishing dimensions of HRQoL and wellbeing, which may obviate the need for supplementary wellbeing instruments.