Efficacy and safety of amphotericin B deoxycholate versus N-methylglucamine antimoniate in pediatric visceral leishmaniasis: an open-label, randomized, and controlled pilot trial in Brazil

CONCLUSIONS N-methylglucamine antimoniate and amphotericin B deoxycholate have similar efficacy and adverse events rate in pediatric patients with VL.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

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by Md. Abu Musa, Risa Nakamura, Asma Hena, Sanjay Varikuti, Hira L. Nakhasi, Yasuyuki Goto, Abhay Satoskar, Shinjiro Hamano Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis and is caused by several species ofLeishmania parasite. Clinical presentation of CL varies from a self-healing infection to a chronic form of the disease determined by the virulence of infectingLeishmania species and host immune responses to the parasite. Mouse models of CL show contradictory roles of lymphocytes in pathogenesis, while acquired immune responses are responsible for host protection from diseases. To reconcile the inc...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
by Ayako Morimoto, Kazuyuki Uchida, James K. Chambers, Kai Sato, Jing Hong, Chizu Sanjoba, Yoshitsugu Matsumoto, Junya Yamagishi, Yasuyuki Goto Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by parasitic protozoa of the genusLeishmania and is characterized by clinical manifestations such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. Hemophagocytosis, the phenomenon of phagocytosis of blood cells by macrophages, is found in VL patients. In a previous study we established an experimental model of VL, reproducing anemia in mice for the first time, and identified hemophagocytosis by heavily infected macrophages in the spleen as a possible ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The molecular mechanisms underlying biological differences between two Leishmania species that cause cutaneous disease, L. major and L. amazonensis, are poorly understood. In L. amazonensis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling drives differentiation of nonvirulent promastigotes into forms capable of infecting host macrophages. Tight spatial and temporal regulation of H2O2 is key to this signaling mechanism, suggesting a role for ascorbate-dependent peroxidase (APX), which degrades mitochondrial H2O2. Earlier studies showed that APX-null L. major parasites are viable, accumulate higher levels of H2O2, generate a greater...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Infections Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Paula Roberta da Silva, Jamerson Ferreira de Oliveira, Anekécia Lauro da Silva, Camila Marques Queiroz, Ana Paula Sampaio Feitosa, Denise Maria Figueiredo Araújo Duarte, Aline Caroline da Silva, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz de Castro, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira, Rosali Maria Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Carlos Alves, Fábio André Brayner dos Santos, Maria do Carmo Alves de LimaAbstractParasitic diseases still represent serious public health problems, since the high and steady emergence of...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceThis work is the first contribution to the knowledge of the routes ofLeishmania species introduced in RJ state by migrants and travelers patients.L.(V.) braziliensis,L.(V.) guyanensis,L.(V.) naiffi,L.(L.) amazonensis, and genetic variants ofL.(V.) braziliensis were identified in RJ state. To determine whether the autochthonous transmission of these imported species is possible it is necessary the adaptation of these species to environmental conditions as well as the presence of reservoirs and phlebotomine vectors in this region.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Sri Lanka reports a large epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by an atypical L. donovani while regional leishmaniasis elimination drive aims at achieving its targets in 2020. Visceralization, mucotrophism, and CL associated poor treatment response were recently reported. Long-term clinico-epidemiological trends (2001-2013) in this focus were examined for the first time. Both constant and changing features were observed. Sociodemographic patient characteristics that differ significantly from those of country profile, microchanges within CL profile, spatial expansion, constant biannual seasonal ...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
In this study, the circadian rhythm of IgG2 and IgA specific antibodies in serum and saliva samples of 6 dogs experimentally infected with Leishmania infantum was assessed. Sampling was performed at 8.00, 12.00, 16.00, 20.00, and 00.00 h on two consecutive days. Anti-Leishmania antibody levels in saliva were shown in different ways: without any correction, adjusted by protein concentration and corrected by the salivary flow rate. No significant differences in anti-Leishmania IgG2 antibody levels with or without correction were found, but significant differences were found corrected by the flow rate in anti-Leishmani...
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
We report for the first time the isolation of 2-furyl(phenyl)methanol (5) from the chloroform extracts of the Atractylis gummifera roots. A. gummifera is a thistle belonging to the Asteraceae family that produces the ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside (ATR). ATR (1) was isolated and chemically modified to obtain its aglycone atractyligenin (2) and the methylated derivatives ATR-OMe (3) and genine-OMe (4). The compounds 1-5 were structurally characterised and evaluated against the intracellular amastigote, cultured within macrophages, and the extracellular promastigote of Leishmania donovani, the protozoan para...
Source: Fitoterapia - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Fitoterapia Source Type: research
AbstractIn this paper, twelve substitutedO-geranylchalcones were synthesized and evaluated for their leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity. All the synthesized compounds showed selective activity againstL. mexicana strain in comparison toT. cruzi strain.O-geranyl chalcone5j substituted with ameta-NO2 group in B ring, showed the highest selectivity (IS  = 21.46). Cytotoxicity studies using murine macrophages J774.A1 showed that F and Cl substituents on thepara position on the B ring, displayed the less toxicity as in compounds5f and5i. Calculated ADME properties indicated that the obtained chalcones present...
Source: Medicinal Chemistry Research - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
In this study, we intend to explore linkage between organ specific immune response and eicosanoids. We suggest that eicosanoids (early immune modulators) and their organ specific expressions, possibly tune the outcome of mφ differently at different sites. We have observed that liver showed better containment of parasitic load than spleen, where we have found higher expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme along with IL-12 and iNOS. However, in spleen, enzymes of the PGE2 pathway (PGE2 cytosolic and PGE2 microsomal) along with IL-10 were predominantly higher. To further corroborate our findings, in vitro assays were c...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
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