In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of Artemisia annua L. leaf powder and its potential usefulness in the treatment of uncomplicated cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans

CONCLUSION: Capsules of A. annua L. represent an effective treatment for uncomplicated CL, although further randomized controlled trials are needed to validate its efficacy and safety.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

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Abstract Leishmaniasis is second most neglected disease after malaria and seems to be a worldwide concern because of increased drug resistance and non-availability of approved vaccine. The underlying molecular mechanism of drug resistance (Amp B) in Leishmania parasites still remains elusive. Herein, the present study investigated differentially expressed secreted proteins of Amphotericin B sensitive (S) and resistant (R) isolate of Leishmania donovani by using label free quantitative LC-MS/MS approach. A total of 406 differentially expressed secreted proteins were found between sensitive (S) and resistant (R) iso...
Source: Journal of Proteomics - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: J Proteomics Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil (approval number 693.111). Human Blood Samples and Preparation of Peripheral Blood Cells Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated from heparinized venous blood by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Cells were then washed in ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC, approval FUA-007-14) from the Unidad de Biología Comparativa (UBA) at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (PUJ, Bogotá, Colombia). All animal studies were conducted in accordance with the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” from UBA-PUJ. The present study was described according to the Animal Research: Reporting in vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) criteria from the National Center for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) (32). Mice ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions Nucleoside hydrolases are vital enzymes for the replication of Leishmania, conserved phylogenetic marker of the genus and strong-specific immunogens. We demonstrated that NH36 is an excellent target for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Searching for the most immunogenic fraction of promastigotes of Leishmania we described the FML antigen of L. (L.) donovani, that has as its main component, the NH36 Nucleoside hydrolase. We developed second–generation vaccines with the FML and the NH36 native antigens, and with the NH36 recombinant protein. In addition, we obtained a third generation vaccine based ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, we hope that this review brings about a new and more in-depth understanding of the part that Leishmania exosomes and various infectious agents play in the context of host-parasite interactions, with a particular focus on the establishment of infection. Future research in this field of investigations is critical for the development of new vaccine and diagnostic tools. Author Contributions The first draft was done by MO. AF and GD added new information. Funding Research in MO laboratory is supported by the Canadian Institute of Health Research (grant number: PJT-159765) and the Natural Sciences and Enginee...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Infection with Plasmodium species parasites causes malaria. Plasmodium parasites are purine auxotrophic. They import purines via an equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT). In P. falciparum, the most virulent species, the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PfENT1) represents the primary purine uptake pathway. This transporter is a potential target for the development of antimalarial drugs. In the absence of a high-resolution structure for either PfENT1 or a homologous ENT, we used the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to investigate the membrane-spanning domain structure of PfENT1 to identify potenti...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Membrane Biology Source Type: research
Polyamines are polycationic organic amines that are required for all eukaryotic life, exemplified by the polyamine spermidine, which plays an essential role in translation. They also play more specialized roles that differ across species, and their chemical versatility has been fully exploited during the evolution of protozoan pathogens. These eukaryotic pathogens, which cause some of the most globally widespread infectious diseases, have acquired species-specific polyamine-derived metabolites with essential cellular functions and have evolved unique mechanisms that regulate their core polyamine biosynthetic pathways. Many...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Thematic Minireviews Source Type: research
This study verified the in vitro efficiency and mechanism of AcEPs against both Leishmania promastigotes and axenic amastigotes (L. tarentolae and L. donovani) as well as their toxicity in J774 macrophages. Additionally, the kinetics and radical products of AcEPs’ reaction with iron, the formation of radicals by AcEPs in Leishmania, as well as the resulting impairment of parasite mitochondrial functions were studied. Using electron paramagnetic resonance combined with spin trapping, photometry, and fluorescence-based oximetry, AcEPs were demonstrated to (i) show antileishmanial activity in vitro at IC50 values in...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
A novel pan-Leishmania loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL) that can be used in near-patient settings was developed. Primers were designed based on the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the conserved region of minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), selected on the basis of high copy number. LAMP assays were evaluated for CL diagnosis in a prospective cohort trial of 105 patients in southwest Colombia. Lesion swab samples from CL suspects were collected and were tested using the LAMP assay, and the results were compared to those of a composite refer...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Parasitology Source Type: research
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic neglected tropical disease prevalent in several areas where seasonal malaria transmission is active. We assessed the effect of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and the ...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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