The role of aquaporin-4 in synaptic plasticity, memory and disease.

The role of aquaporin-4 in synaptic plasticity, memory and disease. Brain Res Bull. 2017 Mar 05;: Authors: Hubbard JA, Szu JI, Binder DK Abstract Since the discovery of aquaporins, it has become clear that the various mammalian aquaporins play critical physiological roles in water and ion balance in multiple tissues. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the principal aquaporin expressed in the central nervous system (CNS, brain and spinal cord), has been shown to mediate CNS water homeostasis. In this review, we summarize new and exciting studies indicating that AQP4 also plays critical and unanticipated roles in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Next, we consider the role of AQP4 in Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke. Each of these conditions involves changes in AQP4 expression and/or distribution that may be functionally relevant to disease physiology. Insofar as AQP4 is exclusively expressed on astrocytes, these data provide new evidence of "astrocytopathy" in the etiology of diverse neurological diseases. PMID: 28274814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

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Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Uysal SP, Sahin M Abstract Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder that is characterized by cellular and tissue dysplasia in With the advent of genetic and molecular techniques, mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes were discovered to be responsible for mTOR overactivation, which is the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis. TSC is a highly heterogenous clinical entity with variable presentations and severity of disease. The brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidneys, and lungs are commonly involved in this syndrome, with the neurologic symptoms comprising a significant source of mo...
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusion Consequently, characterization of epidural ASCs, will pave the way for new studies investigating their use in dural and also central nervous system healing and recovery after an injury. PMID: 32222128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
Source: BMJ News - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: BPPV is the most frequent diagnosis seen in the ED; however, physicians need to document nystagmus more precisely and perform diagnostic tests systematically, in order to make an accurate diagnosis. To avoid misdiagnoses, ED physicians and ENT specialists should be able to recognize central signs in patients with an acute vestibular syndrome. Every fourth patient does not receive a definitive diagnosis. Diagnostic ED workup for patients with dizziness needs further improvement. PMID: 32221628 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
A 43 ‐year‐old man who was treated with interferon‐beta for multiple sclerosis was presented with hypertension, headache, nausea/vomiting, blurred vision, and renal dysfunction. The treatment with drugs and dialysis relieved the symptoms. Despite plasmapheresis is known to cause improvement in rena l function, no such improvement was seen in patient. AbstractA 43 ‐year‐old man who was treated with interferon‐beta for multiple sclerosis was presented with hypertension, headache, nausea/vomiting, blurred vision, and renal dysfunction. The treatment with drugs and dialysis relieved the symptoms. Despite plasmapher...
Source: Clinical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
ConclusionsMore macrovascular and microvascular complications were found in Northern compared to Southern patients, and the largest difference also appeared in the younger age groups under 55, which may be meaningful to a screening and treatment strategy according to geographic differences.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 March 2020Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Muwan Chen, Muyesier Maimaitili, Susanne Hvolbøl Buchholdt, Uffe Birk Jensen, Fabia Febbraro, Mark Denham
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions. EXPAND provides evidence of the efficacy of siponimod compared with placebo, and these MAIC complement this by demonstrating improved efficacy of siponimod relative to DMTs. Siponimod offers a significant therapeutic advance that may slow disease progression compared to other DMTs in an EXPAND-like population with secondary progressive disease. PMID: 32220214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents neurotoxic plasma components, blood cells, and pathogens from entering the brain. At the same time, the BBB regulates transport of molecules into and out of the central nervous system (CNS), which maintains tightly controlled chemical composition of the neuronal milieu that is required for proper neuronal functioning. In this review, we first examine molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the establishment of the BBB. Then, we focus on BBB transport physiology, endothelial and pericyte transporters, and perivascular and paravascular transport. Next, we discuss ...
Source: Physiological Reviews - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Physiol Rev Source Type: research
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