Novel, Immune Therapies Promising in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers
Treatment of keratinocyte carcinomas such as basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors and targeted agents warrant further investigation, according to recently published studies.
Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the white population worldwide. It is divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common subtypes of NMSC and it is estimated that 2-3 million new cases occur globally each year. Malignant melanoma is the least common skin cancer; however, it is the most fatal one its incidence is alarmingly increasing. According to worldwide trends, skin cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in Colombia, by 2010 reached up to 20.2% of all cancer cases attended.
Perineural invasion (PNI) is a mechanism of neoplastic growth and spread that occurs in and around nerves as a means of minimal resistance. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are among the most common cutaneous tumors known to take advantage of this phenomenon. Moreover, tumors that exhibit PNI are at higher risk for distant metastases, and are associated with an increased rate of recurrence, morbidity, and mortality. The link between PNI and invasive techniques such as cryosurgery has been proposed, but studies are limited.
Introduction: Approximately 3 million Americans are diagnosed and treated annually with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Traditionally these cancers are diagnosed by shave biopsy or punch biopsy. Although shave biopsy is often used in diagnosis of NMSC, limited data exists regarding the persistence of residual tumor at the time of definitive treatment, such as excision. Literature suggests that 15%-40% of the time residual NMSC is not found at the time of excision following shave biopsy.
Nonmelanoma skin cancer represents the most common malignancy in the United States, and the incidence is increasing. In the United States alone, average annual treatment costs are in the billions. Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is considered the most common skin cancer, recent studies suggest the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has increased creating a SCC:BCC ratio of 1.0. Many treatment modalities are used for SCC including Mohs micrographic surgery, but there are currently no FDA-approved topical therapies for SCCs.
Background: Incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), specifically, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been increasing for decades. This increase is multifactorial: better skin cancer detection, increased sun exposure, and increased life expectancy. In addition, biopsy rates (number of biopsies/number of patient visits) are increasing in the U.S. Utah has one of the highest rates of both NMSCs and melanoma in the U.S. Historic figures for BCC:SCC ratio in the U.S.
Introduction: Actinic keratosis (AK) may be considered by some to be an incipient form of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as the rate of SCC in individuals with AK has been estimated at 0.025%-16%. There is much less reported evidence for AK association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and melanoma (MM). The aim of this study is to determine if an association exists between AK and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC; SCC and BCC) and between AK and MM in a large midwestern U.S. patient population.
ConclusionCaveolin-1 downregulation may increase the susceptibility to both benign and malignant hyperproliferative skin disorders. It could be useful as predictive biomarker of disease severity and progression.
CONCLUSION Familiarization with these unique presentations of skin cancer in skin of color is imperative to accurate identification and treatment of cutaneous malignancies in these populations and ultimately to improved disease-related outcomes.
In conclusion, dermoscopy is valuable for the diagnosis of CNH as a first screening tool because of a consistent global dermoscopic configuration (daisy pattern), consisting of radially arranged white thick lines surroun ding a central rounded yellow/brown clod.
Conclusion: This study showed that it is possible to distinguish between the different nonmelanoma skin cancers by using OCT, but further prospective studies have to be conducted to validate the sensitivity and specificity of the criteria.Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2018;31:238 –245