Why have the majority of recent polio cases occurred in countries affected by Islamist militancy? A historical comparative analysis of the political determinants of polio in Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.

This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries. The second section analyses official documents, newspaper articles, interviews and historical and ethnographic accounts to understand the relationship between Islamist militant groups and polio in five countries - Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria - that account for 95% of the world's polio cases since 2012. I demonstrate that specific political grievances related to the postcolonial state and/or foreign military intervention help to explain variations in militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination programmes. The paper concludes by considering the policy implications of the analysis. Improved access for polio vaccinators is not predicated on military victory against the militants but securing support of de facto political leaders. This can be achieved by developing a better understanding of the specific sociopolitical contexts in which immunization programmes operate. PMID: 28266226 [PubMed - as supplied ...
Source: Medicine, Conflict and Survival - Category: Global & Universal Tags: Med Confl Surviv Source Type: research

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Authors: Abstract "My biggest motivation is the discovery of new therapeutics to save lives. The most significant scientific advance of the last 100 years has been the discovery of polio vaccine …" Find out more about Yanli Zhao in his Author Profile. PMID: 31816177 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Angewandte Chemie - Category: Chemistry Tags: Angew Chem Int Ed Engl Source Type: research
(Natural News) Many people still believe today that Dr. Jonas Salk was the “God” of cult pharmacology because he invented the polio vaccine. But did he? In actuality, all he did was conduct illegal medical experiments on mental patients, while the steady decline of mortality from infectious diseases was instantly (and falsely) credited to him...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
[ANGOP] Luanda -Luanda province will launch one more round of polio vaccination campaign on 13-15 December, announced the health officials.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
[Dalsan Radio] The first phase of a nationwide integrated polio and measles vaccination campaign has concluded in Somalia having achieved high coverage.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Malaysia has begun a vaccination campaign in a rural town on Borneo island after a 3-month-old boy was confirmed to have polio in the country's first case of the highly infectious virus in 27 years
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: IPV-OPV compared to OPV may reduce VAPPs without affecting vaccination coverage, safety or humoral response, except P2 with sequential schemes without P2 components, but increase poliovirus faecal excretion after OPV challenge for some polio serotypes. Compared to IPV-only schedules, IPV-OPV may have little or no difference on SAEs, probably has little or no effect on persons with protective humoral response, may increase neutralising antibodies, and probably reduces faecal excretion after OPV challenge of certain polio serotypes. Using three IPV doses as part of a IPV-OPV schedule does not appear to be better...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Abstract Immunization has made an enormous contribution to global health. Global vaccination coverage has dramatically improved and mortality rates among children due to vaccine-preventable diseases have been significantly reduced since the creation of the Expanded Programme of Immunization in 1974, the formation of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, in 2000, and the development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan in 2012. However, challenges remain and persisting inequities in vaccine uptake contribute to the continued occurrence and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Inequalities in immunization coverage by geogr...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
(Natural News) The World Health Organization (WHO) is finally coming clean about the fact that oral polio vaccines, which government officials claim prevent polio infection, are actually spreading polio all throughout Africa. Nigeria, Congo, Central African Republic, and Angola are all reporting new cases of polio caused by the oral polio vaccine, which is causing children...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
[SNA] Al-Fula -The partial campaign of vaccination against polio and Vitamin(A) deficiency was launched Monday allover localities of West Kordofan State.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
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