Emergence of a novel subclade of influenza A(H3N2) virus in London, December 2016 to January 2017.

We report the molecular investigations of a large influenza A(H3N2) outbreak, in a season characterised by sharp increase in influenza admissions since December 2016. Analysis of haemagglutinin (HA) sequences demonstrated co-circulation of multiple clades (3C.3a, 3C.2a and 3C.2a1). Most variants fell into a novel subclade (proposed as 3C.2a2); they possessed four unique amino acid substitutions in the HA protein and loss of a potential glycosylation site. These changes potentially modify the H3N2 strain antigenicity. PMID: 28251889 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
A recent study in this journal compared codon usage among NA subtypes (N1, N2, N6, and N8)  of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) and suggested that codon usage in N1 subtype is better adapted to its host than the epidemic NA subtypes (N6 and N8), which had fewer number of human cases compared to the N1 subtype.1 To date, there are 18 known HA subtypes (H1-H18) and 11 known NA subtypes (N1-N11)2. However, only N1 and N2 subtypes have been reported to cause pandemics (H1N1 for the 1918 and 2009 pandemics; H2N2 for the 1957 pandemic; and H3N2 for the 1968 pandemic) or seasonal outbreaks in humans3.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
AbstractThe 2017 –2018 flu season is considered to be one of the most severe, with numerous influenza outbreaks worldwide. In an infectious disease hospital of Qinhuangdao, air samples were collected daily from outpatient hall, clinical laboratory, fever clinic, children's ward (Children's Ward I/Children's Ward I I), and adult ward during 23–29 January 2018 (peak flu activity) and 9–15 April 2018 (low flu activity). The air samples were collected with SLC-SiOH magnetic beads using impingement samplers. Real-time PCR assay was used to detect the RNA of airborne influenza (IFVA and IFVB) in the 91 collecte...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
We read with interest the recent communication by Guo et al. concerning avian influenza virus pathogenicity.1 Swine has been considered an intermediate host for avian influenza viruses to adapt to humans. Cross-species transmissions caused by novel reassortant swine-originate influenza A virus (S-OIV) are of particular concern after the 2009 pandemic caused by pdH1N1 virus and epidemic outbreaks caused by H3N2v.2,3 The genesis of these viruses shows that reassortant is the major driving force for producing highly infectious variants.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Two different influenza A viruses have infected and spread among dogs since 2000, and both have been widespread in dogs in North America. The H3N8 canine influenza virus arose in the United States as a variant of equine influenza virus. The H3N2 canine influenza virus arose in Asia by transfer of an avian influenza virus to dogs. Both viruses cause mild respiratory disease and are associated with outbreaks in densely housed dogs or those with frequent connections to other dogs. The 2 canine influenza viruses each caused widespread epidemics over at least several years that were associated with localized outbreaks.
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: The outbreak started in the late monsoon (January) of 2017 and had two peaks; one in summer months and another in winter months. Influenza B virus was reported from December 2017 to May 2018. Age groups ≤5 years and 6–18 years had higher positivity as compared to other age groups. Regular surveillance programmes are required for assessing the trends of influenza infections due to various subtypes and to plan timely and adequate steps for preventing the spread to larger vulnerable population.
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
(CNN) — Flu activity remains high across the nation, and there’s a second wave of severe infections striking some states. There were as many as 26.3 million flu illnesses, 12.4 million medical visits and 347,000 flu hospitalizations between October 1 and March 2, according to the weekly flu report released Friday by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “We’re still having flu. And we’re still seeing a steady stream of patients who are being admitted to hospital with influenza,” said Dr. William Schaffner, medical director of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. ...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Flu Source Type: news
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