Regular activity may help some people stay 'fat and fit'
Conclusion As people often say, if exercise was a medicine, it would be hailed as a miracle cure. This study suggests that what we already know about the benefits of exercise may extend to reducing risk of cardiovascular disease for middle aged and older people, even if they are overweight or obese. But the study has some limitations. This type of study can't prove that one factor – exercise – is responsible for the lower risk of heart attack and stroke among overweight or obese people who exercise more. It's possible that other factors are important – for example people's income may be linked to their opportunities for exercise. In addition, people are more likely to be physically active when they are in good health, so lower levels of physical activity might suggest people are already unhealthy, and therefore more at risk of heart attack or stroke. The amounts of exercise people reported are strikingly high. The study didn't measure activity through monitoring devices, so we can't be sure that people didn't overstate how much activity they were doing. The study included physical activity for transport as well as leisure, so one possibility is that people in Rotterdam get around on foot or bicycle a lot (a factor that may be more significant in the Netherlands than the UK). So the differences in activity levels from the usual levels reported in the UK mean that the results may not translate to a UK population. Latest figures show only 67% of ...
Authors: Li T, Han J, Jia L, Hu X, Chen L, Wang Y Abstract A change in the metabolic flux of glucose from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is regarded as one hallmark of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic switch between aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS are unclear. Here we show that the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), one of the rate-limiting enzymes in glycolysis, interacts with mitofusin 2 (MFN2), a key regulator of mitochondrial fusion, to promote mitochondrial fusion and OXPHOS, and attenuate glycolysis. mTOR increases the PKM2:MFN2 interaction by p...
Authors: Han L, Zhang JJ, Jing HF, Qin L Abstract Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the most common cardiovascular emergencies. With the improvement of living standards, the incidence and mortality rate of STEMI has shown a significant growth trend. PMID: 30892000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In conclusion, CD133 promoted the upregulation of CSC/TSC-related genes in glioma cells, while enhancing the neurosphere-forming ability and in-vivo oncogenicity. PMID: 30891998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conclusion: Substitution of parenteral thiamine in individuals with suspected WE is a well-established treatment regimen. However, suggestions according to guidelines vary widely. Furthermore, hardly any evidence-based recommendations exist on a more general use of thiamine as a preventative intervention in individuals with AUD. Further research is of utmost importance to raise awareness for this potentially undervalued problem.Eur Addict Res 2019;25:103 –110
In this study, several cerasome-forming lipoamino acids (CFLA) were synthesized and used as structural blocks for cerasome preparation. Pure cerasomes which contained only CFLA, and mixed cerasomes based on a mixture of CFLA with a disintegrating dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid were fabricated and characterized in terms of morphology, mean size, ζ-potential, stability at storage. All obtained cerasome samples were found to be much more stable at storage than conventional liposomes (120 and 10 days, respectively). The cerasomes were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and tested in vitro using human breast aden...
Taxol is a common chemotherapy (CTX) drug that is associated with the development of neuropathy. Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) is the dose limiting toxicity of this CTX drug. Paclitaxel exerts its therapeutic effect by binding to β-tubulin, which interferes with microtubule dynamics and results in microtubule stabilization, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis of cancer cells. However, microtubules are critical for axonal function and for the transport of essential organelles to distal nerve endings.
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is an intractable complication of diabetes that affects 25% of patients. PDN is characterized by neuropathic pain and small-fiber degeneration, accompanied by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) nociceptor hyperexcitability and loss of their axons within the skin. The molecular mechanisms underlying DRG nociceptor hyperexcitability and small-fiber degeneration in PDN are unknown. To delineate the molecular mechanisms behind nociceptor hyperexcitability and small-fiber degeneration, it becomes important to uniquely identify changes in the nociceptor population from within the heterogeneous populatio...
The objectives of this work were to study 1) effects of oxaliplatin on membrane excitability in Isoletcin B4-positive and –negative (IB4+ and IB4-) subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and 2) targeting oxaliplatin-induced membrane hyperexcitability to relief neuropathic pain.
Tongue cancer patients suffer severe, chronic pain driven by oral cancer-induced activation of sensory neurons innervating the oral cavity. However, the impact of sensory neurotransmission on oral carcinogenesis is understudied. Local neurotransmitter release from sensory neurons innervating the cancer has been linked to cancer growth and immune suppression. We hypothesize that oral cancer-induced neurotransmitter release from trigeminal sensory neurons (TGNs) promotes oral cancer proliferation and suppresses the immune response.
Pain is a tremendous health care burden associated with prediabetes and diabetes. However, not everyone with prediabetes or diabetes develops pain and the factors that increase susceptibility to painful neuropathy remain elusive. The epidermis is innervated by both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic axons and our studies in mice reveal that mechanical allodynia induced by consuming a high fat diet increases peptidergic epidermal axons. We hypothesize that patients with prediabetes and painful neuropathy have an abnormal proportion of epidermal peptidergic axons.
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