Similarity-based interference in sentence comprehension: Literature review and Bayesian meta-analysis
We report a comprehensive review of the published reading studies on retrieval interference in reflexive-/reciprocal-antecedent and subject-verb dependencies. We also provide a quantitative random-effects meta-analysis of eyetracking and self-paced reading studies. We show that the empirical evidence is only partly consistent with cue-based retrieval as implemented in the ACT-R-based model of sentence processing by Lewis and Vasishth (2005) (LV05) and that there are important differences between the reviewed dependency types. In non-agreement subject-verb dependencies, there is evidence for inhibitory interference in configurations where the correct dependent fully matches the retrieval cues. This is consistent with the LV05 cue-based retrieval account. By contrast, in subject-verb agreement as well as in reflexive-/reciprocal-antecedent dependencies, no evidence for inhibitory interference is found in configurations with a fully cue-matching subject/antecedent. In configurations with only a partially cue-matching subject or antecedent, the meta-analysis reveals facilitatory interference in subject-verb agreement and inhibitory interference in reflexives/reciprocals. The former is consistent with the LV05 account, but the latter is not. Moreover, the meta-analysis reveals that (i) interference type (proactive versus retroactive) leads to different effects in the reviewed dependency types and (ii) the prominence of the distractor strongly influences the interference effect. In...
Edgardo Sepulveda, Andrei N. Lupas
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Guangshan Yao, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Xiuna Wang, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
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Majdiah Othman, Arbakariya B. Ariff, Leonardo Rios-Solis, Murni Halim
ConclusionsA MEL‐A2 with novel composition and surface activities was efficiently produced from a novel MEL producer. This is the first report on production of MEL‐A2 as the major product and from soybean oil. The biosurfactant has potential application as a wetting agent and oil‐in‐water emulsifier. Significance and Impact of the StudyDiscovery of novel structures and novel strains is valuable for further commercial development and application of MELs. Sporisorium sp. aff. sorghi SAM20 can be considered as a potential candidate for commercial production of biosurfactants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. The phosphodiesterase VieA regulates gene expression by modifying the intracellular cyclic diguanylate pool. This article reveals the differential regulation of VieA in Vibrio cholerae O1 biotypes. Expression of VieA is repressed by the nucleoid‐associated protein H‐NS and the LysR‐type regulator LeuO in classical biotype V. cholerae, and by H‐NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR in the El Tor biotype.
We describe approaches for back‐calculating model parameter estimates and their standard errors from available summary statistics with various techniques, including approximate Bayesian computation. We propose to use a quadratic approximation to the log‐likelihood for each historical trial based on 2 independent terms for the log mean rate and the log of the dispersion parameter. A Bayesian hierarchical meta‐analysis model then provides the posterior predictive distribution for these parameters. Simulations show this approach with back‐calculated parameter estimates results in very similar inference as using parame...