B cells produce antibodies 'when danger calls, but not when it whispers,' scientists report

The immune system’s B cells protect us from disease by producing antibodies, or "smart bullets," that specifically target invaders such as pathogens and viruses while leaving harmless molecules alone. But how do B cells determine whether a threat is real and whether to start producing these weapons? An international team of life scientists shows in the May 16 issue of the journal Science how and why these cells respond only to true threats. "It is critical for B cells to respond either fully or not at all. Anything in between causes disease," said the study’s senior author, Alexander Hoffmann, a professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics in the UCLA College of Letters and Science. "If B cells respond wimpily when there is a real pathogen, you have immune deficiency, and if they respond inappropriately to something that is not a true pathogen, then you have autoimmune disease." The antibodies produced by B cells attack antigens — molecules associated with pathogens, microbes and viruses. A sensor on the cell’s surface is meant to recognize a specific antigen, and when the sensor encounters that antigen, it sends a signal that enables the body’s army of B cells to respond rapidly. However, there may be similar molecules nearby that are harmless. The B cells should ignore their signals — something they fail to do in autoimmune diseases. So how do the B cells decide whether to start pro...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Related Links:

LUNG cancer symptoms may only appear when the condition becomes more advanced, which may make it harder to treat. The number of people surviving one year with the condition rose to 38 per cent in 2015, according to the National Lung Cancer Audit. You should never ignore unexplained weight loss, which could be a sign of the condition.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Conclusions: The use of a hydrogel prior to salvage HDR-BT in a patient previously treated with HDR-BT is feasible and could help reduce the rectal exposure in the salvage setting. PMID: 29789766 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research
Conclusions: LDR brachytherapy is an effective treatment option in low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. We observed low biochemical relapse rates and minimal GU toxicities several years after treatment in patients with or without TURP. However, a small risk of urinary retention was observed in some patients. PMID: 29789764 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research
Authors: Huo X, Huo B, Wang H, Wang L, Cao Q, Zheng G, Wang J, Chai S, Zhang Z, Yang K, Niu Y, Wang H Abstract Purpose: To evaluate intermediate-term outcomes after computed tomography (CT)-guided radioactive 125I seed implantation (CTRISI), and to determine prognostic variables associated with outcomes in patients with pulmonary metastases. Material and methods: Thoracic surgeons evaluated and performed implantation of 125I radioactive seeds under CT guidance or combined with surgical resection. Patients were monitored in the thoracic surgery clinic for recurrence and survival. Results: Fifty patients (31 ...
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research
Conclusions: With appropriate patient selection and choosing as lowest dose per fraction as possible, HDR brachytherapy with customized surface molds yields good oncological and cosmetic results for the treatment of localized skin BCC and SCC. PMID: 29789760 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research
Conclusions: VBT alone is as effective as EBRT+VBT in ensuring loco-regional control and achieving comparable survival rates, with fewer toxic effects for patients with stage I intermediate- and high-risk endometrial carcinoma. The dose escalation did not make a difference in the survival rates and was like in the other major trials (PORTEC-2). PMID: 29789759 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research
Conclusions: This technique, although time-consuming, achieves good local disease control with a satisfactory toxicity profile in both early-stage and local recurrent breast cancer patients. It may be especially suitable for frail patients. PMID: 29789758 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Future cachexia trials would likely benefit from studying a single tumour type with earlier stage disease, with probably different dosage depending on the cancer type and its inflammatory profile. PMID: 29779814 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Nutr ESPEN Source Type: research
Conclusion Recent evidence shows changes in frequency and function of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in patients with MS, which suggests a potential relationship between Th22 cells, IL-22 levels, and the development and disease course of MS and its response to treatment. How Th22 cells and IL-22 levels affect the disease course of MS requires further elucidation. Additional studies on the immunopathogenesis of MS, specifically the roles Th22 cells and IL-22 cytokines may play in disease progression, are warranted and may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for treating neuro-inflammatory diseases, such as MS...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Current Issue Demyelinating Disease Genetics Multiple Sclerosis Neurology Review interleukin-22 T helper 22 Source Type: research
Conclusion A growing number of today’s children suffer from vaccine damage. Most individuals do not make the connection between health problems and vaccines. When asked about the cause of autoimmune disorders, asthma, allergies, diabetes, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, autism, and other common childhood diseases and illness, the majority of health care providers advise patients that the causes are unknown. Doctors, including most integrative physicians, fail to make the connection to vaccines. It takes one moment to permanently damage the health of an adult or child, but t...
Source: vactruth.com - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Logical Michelle Goldstein Top Stories autoimmune disorders gardasil HPV Vaccine Medical Authority vaccine injury Source Type: blogs
More News: Accidents | Allergy | Allergy & Immunology | Audiology | Autoimmune Disease | Biology | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Education | Funding | Genetics | Grants | Health | Infectious Diseases | Laboratory Medicine | Lupus | Microbiology | Molecular Biology | National Institutes of Health (NIH) | Science | Sports Medicine | Study | Texas University | Universities & Medical Training