B cells produce antibodies 'when danger calls, but not when it whispers,' scientists report

The immune system’s B cells protect us from disease by producing antibodies, or "smart bullets," that specifically target invaders such as pathogens and viruses while leaving harmless molecules alone. But how do B cells determine whether a threat is real and whether to start producing these weapons? An international team of life scientists shows in the May 16 issue of the journal Science how and why these cells respond only to true threats. "It is critical for B cells to respond either fully or not at all. Anything in between causes disease," said the study’s senior author, Alexander Hoffmann, a professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics in the UCLA College of Letters and Science. "If B cells respond wimpily when there is a real pathogen, you have immune deficiency, and if they respond inappropriately to something that is not a true pathogen, then you have autoimmune disease." The antibodies produced by B cells attack antigens — molecules associated with pathogens, microbes and viruses. A sensor on the cell’s surface is meant to recognize a specific antigen, and when the sensor encounters that antigen, it sends a signal that enables the body’s army of B cells to respond rapidly. However, there may be similar molecules nearby that are harmless. The B cells should ignore their signals — something they fail to do in autoimmune diseases. So how do the B cells decide whether to start pro...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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ConclusionsThe onset of a second primary tumour was related with the primary treatment given; thus the risk for those treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy more than doubled.ResumenIntroducción y objetivosLa aparición de segundos tumores primarios en pacientes con cáncer de próstata de alto riesgo debe tenerse en cuenta en la evolución natural de la enfermedad. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la influencia del tratamiento primario con intención curativa de dichos pacientes en el desarrollo de segundos tumores primarios.Material y métodosEstudio retrospectivo...
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)Author(s): J.M. Cózar, B. Miñana, F. Gómez-Veiga, A. Rodríguez-Antolín, GESCAP GroupAbstractAimsTo describe the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and disease-specific mortality in the prospective prostate cancer GESCAP cohort, as well as the progression to castration resistance in patients on hormone therapy.Material and methodsProspective, observational, epidemiological, multicentre study. Of the 4087 patients recruited, 3843 were evaluable. The...
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe diagnostic performance of CB in patients with at least one previous negative biopsy was 44%, increasing according to the PI-RADS grade, and low in PI-RADS 3. No clinical variable predictive of cancer was found in patients with PI-RADS 3.ResumenIntroducciónEvaluación de la efectividad de la biopsia cognitiva (BC) en los pacientes con sospecha clínica de cáncer de próstata (caP) y al menos una biopsia negativa (BTR).Material y métodoAnálisis retrospectivo de 144 pacientes con al menos una BTR y una resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) previa. Los nód...
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
ConclusionsPatient portals may offer an opportunity to build sustainable programs for decision support and assistance that are integrated with clinic workflows and processes.
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Claire Daly, 34, of  Coventry, West Midlands, was just days into the three-week break with her husband Matt, 43, in September 2015 when she became fatigued and under the weather.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent MedicineAuthor(s): Mohammed AlTwajery, Waleed AlMane, Sulaiman M Al-MayoufAbstractObjectiveTo report the electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and assess whether anti-Ro/SSA antibodies and hydroxychloroquine are associated with the rhythm disturbances.MethodsThis cross-sectional retrospective study comprised patients with SLE who had regular follow-up in the pediatric Lupus Clinic at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center-Riyadh. All enrolled patie...
Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
This Guest Editorial introduces this month's special Pancreatic Cancer Theme Issue, a series of reviews intended to highlight the pathologic to molecular profiles and diagnoses of benign and neoplastic pancreatic lesions.
Source: American Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Guest editorial Source Type: research
AbstractThe number of peer-reviewed articles published during the 2017 solar year and retrieved using the “autoimmunity” key word increased significantly compared to 2016 while maintaining a stable share within the immunology field, following years with alternated fortunes. A detailed arbitrary analysis of the published articles in leading immunology and autoimmunity journals provides a privileged v iewpoint on the current trends of research from both basic and clinical studies. Indeed, we are observing that major steps forward are found for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic scler...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion Recent evidence shows changes in frequency and function of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in patients with MS, which suggests a potential relationship between Th22 cells, IL-22 levels, and the development and disease course of MS and its response to treatment. How Th22 cells and IL-22 levels affect the disease course of MS requires further elucidation. Additional studies on the immunopathogenesis of MS, specifically the roles Th22 cells and IL-22 cytokines may play in disease progression, are warranted and may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for treating neuro-inflammatory diseases, such as MS...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Current Issue Demyelinating Disease Genetics Multiple Sclerosis Neurology Review interleukin-22 T helper 22 Source Type: research
Conclusion A growing number of today’s children suffer from vaccine damage. Most individuals do not make the connection between health problems and vaccines. When asked about the cause of autoimmune disorders, asthma, allergies, diabetes, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, autism, and other common childhood diseases and illness, the majority of health care providers advise patients that the causes are unknown. Doctors, including most integrative physicians, fail to make the connection to vaccines. It takes one moment to permanently damage the health of an adult or child, but t...
Source: vactruth.com - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Logical Michelle Goldstein Top Stories autoimmune disorders gardasil HPV Vaccine Medical Authority vaccine injury Source Type: blogs
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