Scientists Test Deep Brain Stimulation As Potential Anorexia Therapy

A small study in 16 people with severe anorexia has found that implanting stimulation electrodes into the brains of patients could ease their anxiety and help them gain weight. Researchers found that in extreme cases of the eating disorder, the technique - known as deep brain stimulation (DBS) - swiftly helped many of those studied reduce symptoms of either anxiety or depression, and improved their quality of life. A few months later, the improved psychological symptoms began to lead to changes in weight, the researchers said, with the average body mass index (BMI) of the group increasing to 17.3 – a rise of 3.5 points – over the course of the study. Anorexia is a serious eating disorder that affects around 0.5 percent of people worldwide, the majority of them teenage girls. Patients have persistent concerns about their weight, shape and size, and starve themselves to maintain a low weight. Chronic anorexia can be fatal, and in many cases causes severe health problems including weak bones and muscles, sexual problems, infertility, heart problems and seizures. The scientists who led this study, published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal on Friday, said their results suggest deep brain stimulation - which involves implanting electrodes to stimulate brain areas that control dysfunctional behaviors - might alter the brain circuits that drive anorexia. DBS is already used to target brain circuits involved in Parkinson’s disease and tremors - and been shown to be ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Journal of Materials Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Elieser de Araújo, Rafael Marinho Bandeira, Marcos Dorigão Manfrinato, Jéferson Aparecido Moreto, Roger Borges, Sandra dos Santos Vales, Paulo Atsushi Suzuki, Luciana Sgarbi RossinoAbstractThe aim of this work was to study the influence of thermochemical treatment of ionic plasma nitriding on the resistance to micro-abrasive wear and to the corrosion process of AISI 316L and AISI 470 stainless steels. The thermochemical treatment was performed at different times and temperatures with a gas mix...
Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Journal of Materials Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Naseri Azari Golnaz, Taghizadeh Tabrizi Arvin, Hossein AghajaniAbstractEnhancing the copper-based composites with oxide nanoparticles attracts more attention and many routes are proposed. In this investigation, stoichiometric Cu–TiO2 nanocomposite is synthesized through the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, and the effect of additional Cu contents of 10, 20, 30 wt% on mechanical and physical features of this composite was evaluated. To investigate the obtained properties of specimens, scannin...
Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Tyagi et  al. (1) present the results of a small study (n = 6) in which two deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgical targets for the treatment of intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are compared in an intraindividual trial design. Specifically, patients had DBS electrodes implanted bilaterally in the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) and anteromedial subthalamic nucleus (amSTN). They then entered a 12-week double-blind counterbalanced phase of either VC/VS or amSTN stimulation.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common and can be profoundly debilitating. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) —the delivery of high-frequency stimulation via electrodes to neural targets—is safe and effective for the treatment of refractory OCD (1,2). DBS has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of Parkinson's disease since 2002 and OCD since 2009. Although this treatment is effective on a group level, why specific patients respond but others less so remains an open question.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Deliberate self-harm, encompassing suicide attempts, completed suicides, and nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, is a global public health problem with a particularly strong impact on the world ’s youth and young adults. In the United States, suicide is the third leading cause of death among children 10 to 14 years of age and the second leading cause of death among adolescents and adults 15 to 34 years of age (1). Suicide attempts far outnumber completed suicides, and the personal, socia l, and economic costs of suicidal behavior are staggering.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Caroline Park, Joshua Rosenblat, Elisa Brietzke, Zihang Pan, Yena Lee, Bing Cao, Hannah Zuckerman, Anastasia Kalantarova, Roger S. McIntyreAbstractEnvironmental stressors, such as childhood maltreatment, have been recognized to contribute to the development of depression. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic changes are a key mechanism by which stressors interact with the genome leading to stable changes in DNA structure, gene expression, and behaviour. The current review aimed to evaluate the relationship between...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Adolescent Health - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Food BioscienceAuthor(s): Huri İlyasoğlu, Zheng GuoAbstractA water soluble chitosan-caffeic acid conjugate (C-CAC) was prepared by chemical modification of chitosan using activated caffeoyl with dimethyl aminopyridine as a catalyst. The C-CAC was characterized using UV–visible spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies and differential scanning calorimetry. The caffeoyl content in the C-CAC was 65 mg/g. To study the introduction of a new function into chitosan, the antioxidant activities of the synthesized C-CAC was d...
Source: Food Bioscience - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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