Gut-brain axis: Role of lipids in the regulation of inflammation, pain and CNS diseases.

Gut-brain axis: Role of lipids in the regulation of inflammation, pain and CNS diseases. Curr Med Chem. 2017 Feb 16;: Authors: Russo R, Cristiano C, Avagliano C, De Caro C, La Rana G, Raso GM, Canani RB, Meli R, Calignano A Abstract The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has signi´Čücantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites. Many studies have focused on delineating a role for this axis in health and disease, ranging from stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, and to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson Disease, Alzheimer Disease etc. Based on this background, and considering the relevance of alteration of the symbiotic state between host and microbiota, this review focuses on the role and the involvement of bioactive lipids, such as the N-acylethanolamine (NAE) fam...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research

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Authors: Edman MC, Janga SR, Kakan SS, Okamoto CT, Freire D, Feigenbaum D, Lew M, Hamm-Alvarez SF Abstract Tears are a known source of biomarkers for both ocular and systemic diseases with particular advantages; specifically, the noninvasiveness of sample collection and a unique and increasingly better-defined protein composition. Here, we discuss our rationale for use of tears for discovery of biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD). These reasons include literature supporting changes in tear flow and composition in PD, and the interconnections between the ocular surface system and neurons affected in PD. We highl...
Source: Future Medicine: Biomarkers in Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Biomark Med Source Type: research
We report a case of a young male with no prior genitourinary history who presents to an emergency department with sudden onset gross hematuria, clot retention, and right-sided flank pain. On evaluation, he was found to have a renal artery aneurysm bleeding into his collecting system and underwent renal artery embolization and rapid resolution of his hematuria. Renal vascular pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis and timely diagnosis of this condition is imperative as surgical interventions have proven to be life-saving. PMID: 32065873 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Canadian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Can J Urol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: BTX-A treatment using either a trigone-sparing or trigone-including injection template resulted in significant, but not location-dependent, improvement in IC/BPS symptom scores at 30 and 90 day points post-procedure with no significant difference in post-treatment complication profiles. PMID: 32065870 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Canadian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Can J Urol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Adipose expression of TBX1 is necessary, but not sufficient, to defend body temperature during cold via proper UCP1 expression. Adipose TBX1 expression was also required for proper insulin signaling in subcutaneous adipose as well as maintaining β-adrenergic sensitivity but overexpression of TBX1 was not sufficient to induce adipocyte beiging or prevent diet induced obesity. TBX1 expression is enriched in adipose stem cells in which it has contrasting effects on adipogenesis in mouse versus human cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate the importance of adipose TBX1 in the regulation of beige adipocyt...
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsPPARγ and PPARα synergize to induce robust browning of white fat in vivo, via PPARγ activation in adipose, and PPARα-mediated increase in FGF21.Graphical abstractDual PPARα/γ activation is superior to selective PPARγ activation at inducing browning of white fat in vivo: via PPARγ action in the adipose and a PPARα-mediated action in the liver resulting in increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21).
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: Rangaswamy D, Guddattu V, Webster AC, Borlace M, Boudville N, Clayton P, Badve S, Johnson DW, Sud K Abstract BACKGROUND: Icodextrin is a high molecular weight, starch-derived glucose polymer that is used as an osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) to promote ultrafiltration. There has been wide variation in its use across Australia and the rest of the world, but it is unclear whether these differences are due to patient- or centre-related factors. METHODS: Using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, all adult patients (>18 years) who started PD in Australia between 1 Ja...
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
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Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
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Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Care teams need to offer opportunities to elicit patients' knowledge and fears, dispel myths, forge connections with other patients, and visit the dialysis unit before transition to alleviate anxiety. Interventions that facilitate a sense of control should be grounded in the meaning that the disorder has for the person and how it impacts their sense of self. PMID: 32063183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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