A New Development in Trypanosoma cruzi Detection Commentary

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in areas of Latin America where Chagas disease is endemic and among infected individuals who have migrated to nonendemic areas of North America and Europe. There are many diagnostic tests that are employed in the serological diagnosis of this infection. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Bautista-López et al. provide characterization of excretory vesicles (EVs) from Vero cells infected with T. cruzi and provide data on the EVs produced by trypomastigotes and amastigotes (N. L. Bautista-López et al., J Clin Microbiol 55:744–758, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01649-16). Their proteomic study defines potential targets to evaluate for improved diagnostic tests, effects on host cell biology that contribute to the pathogenesis of infection, and vaccine candidates. If any of the EV-associated proteins identified were to be correlated to cure of infection, this would be a major advance.
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

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Authors: Norman FF, Comeche B, Chamorro S, López-Vélez R Abstract Introduction: Recent increases in population movements have created novel health challenges in many areas of the World, and health policies have been adapted accordingly in several countries. However, screening guidelines for infectious diseases are not standardized and generally do not include comprehensive screening for parasitic infections.Areas covered: Malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis, filariases, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis are reviewed, focusing on the challenges posed for their diagnosis and management ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Augusto E. Bivona, Andrés Sánchez Alberti, Natacha Cerny, Sebastián N. Trinitario, Emilio L. MalchiodiAbstractChagas disease is currently endemic to 21 Latin-American countries and has also become a global concern because of globalization and mass migration of chronically infected individuals. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination might contribute to control the infection and the pathology, as complement of other strategies such as vector control and chemotherapy. Ideal...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
ppi A Abstract The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America but present worldwide. Research efforts have focused on the examination of immune mechanisms that mediate host protection as well as immunopathology during this parasitic infection. The study of CD8+ T cell immunity emerges as a key aspect given the critical importance of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells for host resistance throughout the infection. In recent years, new research has shed light on novel pathways that modulate the induction, maintenance, and regulation of CD8+ T cell respon...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
ens L Abstract Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease endemic in Latin America, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is responsible for significant health impacts, especially in rural communities. The parasite is transmitted by insect vectors in the Triatominae subfamily and due to lack of vaccines and limited treatment options, vector control is the main way of controlling the disease. Knowing what vectors are feeding on directly enhances our understanding of the ecology and biology of the different vector species and can potentially aid in engaging communities in active disease control...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil (approval number 693.111). Human Blood Samples and Preparation of Peripheral Blood Cells Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated from heparinized venous blood by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Cells were then washed in ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC, approval FUA-007-14) from the Unidad de Biología Comparativa (UBA) at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (PUJ, Bogotá, Colombia). All animal studies were conducted in accordance with the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” from UBA-PUJ. The present study was described according to the Animal Research: Reporting in vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) criteria from the National Center for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) (32). Mice ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study needed the experimental validation for the safety and immunogenic behavior of designed vaccine protein and it may be helpful in future to control T. cruzi infection. PMID: 30217522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceConsidering that an early control of parasite burden and tissue damage might contribute to avoid the progression towards symptomatic forms of chronic Chagas disease, the efficacy of Tc80-based vaccines make this molecule a promising immunogen for a mono or multicomponent vaccine againstT.cruzi infection.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we were able to achieve a 4-fold reduction in the amount of benznidazole required to significantly reduce blood and tissue parasite burdens by combining the low-dose benznidazole with a recombinant vaccine candidate, Tc24 C4, formulated with a synthetic Toll-like 4 receptor agonist, E6020, in a squalene oil-in-water emulsion. Additionally, vaccination induced a robust parasite-specific balanced TH1/TH2 immune response. We concluded that vaccine-linked chemotherapy is a feasible option for advancement to clinical use for improving the tolerability and efficacy of benznidazole.
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
ConclusionsT.cruzi TcI has a high capacity of congenital transmission even when it was inoculated at a very low dose before or during gestation. Tissue lesions, parasite load, and fetal under development provide evidence for high virulence of the parasite during pregnancy. Despite finding of high parasite burden by qPCR, placentas were protected from cellular damage. Our studies offer an experimental model to study the efficacy of vaccines and drugs against congenital transmission ofT.cruzi. These results also call forT.cruzi screening in pregnant women and adequate follow up of the newborns in endemic areas.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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