Taxonomic examination of longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, “dragon bone”) and a related crude drug, longchi (Dens Draconis, “dragon tooth”), from Japanese and Chinese crude drug markets
AbstractLonggu ( “dragon bone,”Ryu-kotsu, Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, or Os Draconis) is the only fossil crude drug listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All longgu in the current Japanese market is imported from China, where its resources are being depleted. Therefore, effective countermeasures are urgently needed to prevent resource depletion. One possible solution is the development of a substitute made from bones of contemporary animals that are closely related to the original animal source of the current longgu. However, no research has been conducted on the original animal source of longgu, except for a report on the longgu specimens present in the Shosoin Repository. Taxonomic examination was performed on the fossil specimens related to longgu which are owned by the Museum of Osaka University, Japan. In total, 20,939 fossil fragments were examined, of which 20,886 were mammalian fossils, and 246 of these fossils were classified into nine families. The longgu specimens from the Japanese market belonged to a relatively smaller variety of taxa than those from the Chinese market. Despite the variety of taxa in longgu, medical doctors using Kampo preparations with longgu have not reported any problems due to the presence of impurities in the original animal source. These results suggest that the effect of longgu is independent of its origin as long as it is closely related to the origin of the current longgu. Thus, despite the considerable effects of fossilization, ...
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Urology Case ReportsAuthor(s): Jonathan Kopel, Pranav Sharma, Irfan WarriachAbstractSolitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms found areas lining the pleura. First reported in 1931, there have been a total of 55 cases of SFTs of the kidney worldwide. In most cases, SFTs presents with hematuria, flank pain, and enlarging abdominal mass. In this case, we report a case of a patient who underwent a radical nephrectomy to remove an SFTs of the kidney with compression of the vena cava. This case further expands upon the importance of diagnosing and ass...
AbstractHyperlipidemia and oxidative stress are indispensable features of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that favor the development of atherogenic plaques and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A number of vasoactive mediators including proprotein convertase subtilisin –kexin type 9 (PCSK9), endothelin-1, nitric oxide, and angiotensin II have fundamental roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic events; moreover, their levels are affected by dyslipidemia and oxidative stress due to renal dysfunction. Therefore, therapeutic measures aimed at correcting dysl ipidemia and alleviating oxidative stress could potentially pr...
AbstractThe prevalence of asymptomatic HUA is increasing year after year. HUA is a risk factor for the occurrence and development of renal diseases. However, the role of urate-lowering therapy in asymptomatic HUA complicated by renal damage is still controversial. In some experiments, the treatment of asymptomatic HUA complicated by renal damage may delay the progression of kidney damage. In addition, there is increasing evidence, suggesting that elevated serum uric acid is an independent risk factor for kidney disease. However, in other studies, uric acid-lowering therapy did not improve renal function, and uric acid leve...
ConclusionsTrimetazidine did not exert significant renal protective effect on preventing CIN and in hosptial major adverse clinical events in unselected patients undergoing PCI.
ConclusionsUnmarried men are at higher risk of not benefiting of cytoreductive nephrectomy, metastasectomy, or systemic therapy than their married counterparts. Unmarried women are at higher risk of not benefiting of cytoreductive nephrectomy or systemic therapy. These gender-related differences cumulate in higher CSM in unmarried men, but not in unmarried women.
We examined the relationship between baseline MetS and renal dysfunction after a 3-year evaluation based on estimated glomerul ar filtration rate (eGFRCKDEPI) using the CKD-EPI equations modified by the Japan coefficient. CKD was defined as dipstick-positive proteinuria (> or = 1 +) or a low eGFRCKDEPI (
ConclusionsFebuxostat presents a superior effect in delaying renal impairment progression compared with allopurinol in CKD patients complicated with HUA.
AbstractKidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) staining has been shown to be very useful in identifying acute proximal tubular injury, but its sensitivity, specificity and predicting values for the recovery of renal function after injury in renal biopsies have not been well established. In the first study, we randomly selected 184 renal biopsies from a wide age range of patients (children to elderly) with various renal diseases. KIM-1 staining scores were significantly correlated with serum creatinine (sCr) levels (P
ConclusionIn renal cell carcinoma, rapid and successful drug development has resulted in multiple treatment options, requiring careful decision making for individual patients and have emphasized how newly developed therapies work.
Marc Rodwin of Suffolk University Law School reports that the French health system controls drug prices by determining maximum prices based on added therapeutic value and external reference pricing; employing negotiation to set prices and limit price increases; and capping total spending to a global budget.
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