In Depth Parasitic worm may trigger mystery nodding syndrome

Between 1990 and 2013, thousands of children in war-torn South Sudan and northern Uganda suddenly developed a severe and puzzling form of epilepsy. When exposed to food or cold temperatures, affected children nodded their heads uncontrollably. Over time the seizures often worsened, leaving the children severely disabled. Many died of malnutrition, accidents, or secondary infections. The outbreak triggered an intense hunt for the cause, but searches for viruses, bacteria, environmental toxins, genetic factors, and nutritional deficits all came up empty. One key clue: Areas with nodding disease also had high rates of infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus, best known for causing so-called river blindness. Now, a study finds that the worm might trigger the body's own defenses to attack neurons. Author: Gretchen Vogel
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Neglected Diseases Source Type: news

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This study demonstrated a maximum 2.91 log reduction of Salmonella cocktail in wheat flour treated with 395 nm pulsed LED for 60 min in a semi-closed system. Oxidation occurred in wheat flour after 30 and 60 min exposure to the 395 nm LED, which subsequently led to bleaching, and polymerization of gluten components through disulphide linkage. The water holding capacity of gluten was reduced by oxidation, and the contents of secondary structures were altered significantly after pulsed LED treatment, but the rheological properties were not deteriorated. The disulfide bond formation naturally happens during dough form...
Source: Food Research International - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Health authorities in Lebanon are responding to an outbreak of measles. From 1 November 2018 through 12 October 2019, a total of 1,171 cases have been reported, of which 675 (57.6%) were laboratory confirmed, 8 (0.7%) epidemiologically linked cases, and 488 (41.7%) were clinically diagnosed. No associated deaths have been reported as of now. Measles cases have been reported in all eight Lebanese governorates, with Aakar, Baalbek-El-Hermel, Bekaa North, and Mount Lebanon governorates most affected. Ninety percent of suspected measles cases were Lebanese nationals, while 10% were Syrians living in informal settlements and in...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
In the general population, there is a strong association between having a seizure disorder and excess mortality. Waddy and colleagues examined epilepsy and seizures in a national end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) database. They found that having a diagnosis of epilepsy or seizures was 9-fold and 2-fold higher in patients with ESKD than in the general population. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, patients with ESKD and epilepsy or seizures were found to have an 11% and 14% increase in death compared with those patients with ESKD without either diagnosis.
Source: Kidney International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research
Patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis and persons with epilepsy are at increased risk of death. However, there is little information related to the risk of death when the 2 conditions co-exist. In this issue, Waddy et  al. determined that among patients with end-stage renal disease, those with a diagnose of epilepsy or seizures have a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared with those who do not have an epilepsy or seizure diagnosis. This association was further modified by neurology consultation, with a low er risk in persons who had received a consultation.
Source: Kidney International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS This study contributed to the knowledge on the profile of confirmed cases of high severity yellow fever. The main factors associated with death were changes in renal excretion and elevated serum transaminases, especially ALT. High lethality emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and treatment, and the importance of increasing vaccination coverage.RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o perfil cl ínico-epidemiológico dos casos confirmados de febre amarela internados em hospital geral de referência para doenças infecciosas no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, de 11 de março de 2017 a 15 de ...
Source: Revista de Saude Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
AbstractFremanezumab (fremanezumab-vfrm; Ajovy®), a monoclonal antibody that targets calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is indicated for the prevention of migraine in adults in the EU and USA. Subcutaneous fremanezumab 225  mg once monthly or 675 mg once every 3 months was effective in reducing monthly migraine days or headache days in patients with episodic or chronic migraine in pivotal, 12-week clinical trials. Both regimens also reduce acute headache medication use and headache-related disability. Improvements were maintained through ≤ 52 weeks of additional treatment in a longer-...
Source: Drugs and Therapy Perspectives - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Naturally acquired sexual stage immunity, as detected by antibodies to Pfs230 and Pfs48/45, was present in most studies analyzed. Significant between-study heterogeneity was seen, and methodological factors were a major contributor to this, and prevented further analysis of epidemiological and biological factors. This demonstrates a need for standardized protocols for conducting and reporting seroepidemiological analyses.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Objective: To compare the rate of malreduction after high fibular fractures associated with syndesmosis injury treated with open reduction and internal fixation, with either 2 screws or 1 knotless TightRope device. Design: Prospective randomized controlled multicenter trial. Setting: Eleven academic and community hospitals including Level 1 and Level 2 trauma centers across Canada. Patients/Participants: One hundred three patients with OTA/AO 44-C injuries with demonstrated radiographic syndesmosis diastasis or instability after malleolar bony fixation were followed for 12 months after treatment. Methods: Ope...
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Conclusions: Three thousand eight hundred ten articles were identified, and 12 met inclusion criteria. These studies encompassed 497 patients with an average age of 14.1 years (8–18 years, range). Both operative and nonoperative management of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures in this population provide excellent rates of union and patient-reported outcome measures. Compared with nonoperative management, operative management yielded faster return to activity, superior Constant scores, and equal QuickDASH scores. Operative management had higher complication rates and complications that required secondary operativ...
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
We report the psychiatric, behavioral, and cognitive profiles over the course of disease from a large, prospectively-enrolled, longitudinal cohort of children with CECTS. We further characterize the detailed seizure course and test the relationship between several proposed risk factors and neuropsychiatric and seizure outcomes in these children.MethodsPatients diagnosed with CECTS were enrolled as part of a community-based study and followed from diagnosis through disease resolution (16.0 ± 3.1 years, N = 60). Twenty sibling controls were also recruited. We report the natural history of premorbid neuropsyc...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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