Rethinking the role of alpha toxin in Clostridium perfringens -associated enteric diseases: a review on bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis

AbstractBovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused byClostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when causing intestinal disease,C. perfringens relies upon specific, plasmid-encoded toxins, was recently challenged by the finding that alpha toxin, which is produced by allC. perfringens strains, is essential for necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, otherC. perfringens toxins and/or enzymes might contribute to the pathogenesis of necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. These additional virulence factors might contribute to breakdown of the protective mucus layer during initial stage of pathogenesis, after which alpha toxin, either or not in synergy with other toxins such as perfringolysin O, can act on the mucosal tissue. Furthermore, alpha toxin alone does not cause intestinal necrosis, indicating that other virulence factors might be needed to cause the extensive tissue necrosis observed in necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. This review summarizes recent research that has increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis and provides information that is indispensable for the development of novel control strategies, including vaccines.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Source: Biotechnology Progress - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
eição FR Abstract Clostridium perfringens type A is the causative agent of gas gangrene and gastroenteric ("yellow lamb disease") disease in ruminants, with C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA) being the main virulence factor in the pathogenesis of these illnesses. In the present study, we have developed recombinant Escherichia coli bacterins expressing rCPA and used it to vaccinate rabbits and sheep. Doses of up to 200 μg of rCPA used for inoculation, induced 13,82 IU.mL-1 of neutralizing antitoxin in rabbits, which is three times higher than that recommended by the USDA (4 IU.mL-1). In she...
Source: Anaerobe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the titers of neutralizing antibodies in cattle inoculated with multivalent commercial clostridial vaccines containing C. botulinum type C (BoNTC), C. botulinum type D (BoNTD), and C. perfringens epsilon (ETX) toxoids for a period of one year. Cattle (Bos taurus), aged 4-6 months and not previously immunized, were vaccinated under four different protocols at days 0 and 30 and followed over one year. Individual serum titration was performed by a serum neutralization test in mice or in MDCK cells. The number of animals with detectable neutralizing antibodies ranged from...
Source: Anaerobe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research
In conclusion, the results improve our understanding on the characteristics of lncRNAs and mRNAs on regulating host immune response against C. perfringens type C infection, which will provide a reference for future research into exploring C. perfringens-related diseases in human. Introduction Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a Gram-positive anaerobic rod and ranks as the second most common bacteria that causes fulminant, fatal infectious and immune diseases (Scharff, 2012; Grass et al., 2013). These diseases are characterized by fever, pain, gas production, local edema, and severe tissue destruction, the...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2019Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): Atilio Sersun Calefi, Catarina Augusta de Queiroz Nunes, Juliana Garcia da Silva Fonseca, Wanderley Moreno Quinteiro-Filho, Antonio José Piantino Ferreira, João Palermo-NetoAbstractHeat stress has a relevant effect on animal health and productivity. Stress and environmental changes can contribute to disease development, such as avian necrotic enteritis (NE). The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of heat stress applied to broiler chickens in an experimental model of co-infection with Clostridium perfr...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): D. Lepp, S. Ojha, I. Mehdizadeh Gohari, B. Chakravarty, J.F. Prescott, J. GongAbstractNecrotic enteritis (NE) is an economically important disease of broiler chickens that is caused primarily by Clostridium perfringens strains that produce the NetB toxin. It is controlled in North America principally through the application of in-feed antimicrobials, but alternative control methods, such as vaccination, are urgently needed. We previously identified a cluster of C. perfringens genes prevalent in disease-causing strains, denominated VR...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This study revealed the same level of humoral response in rabbits and cattle for all four toxoids tested, including C. botulinum types C and D toxoids. In contrast, the titers of neutralizing antibodies against C. botulinum type C toxin in guinea pigs differed from those obtained in cattle. Thus, the present work suggests that the potency test for C. botulinum types C in rabbits agrees more with the humoral response in cattle than the potency test in guinea pigs, thereby making it possible to use only rabbits as models in the official control and validations of clostridial vaccines. PMID: 30076896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Anaerobe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research
ConclusionComplete chromosomal and plasmid sequences of Del1 strain are presented in this report. Since Del1 was isolated from a field disease outbreak, this strain is a good source to identify virulent genes that cause many damaging effects of Clostridial infections in chicken gut. Genome sequencing of the chicken pathogenic isolates from commercial farms provides valuable insights into the molecular pathogenesis ofC. perfringens as a gastrointestinal pathogen in food animals. The detailed information on gene sequencing of this important field strain will benefit the development of novel vaccines specific forC. perfringen...
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, a modified β-toxoid gene was synthesized, cloned into the pT1NX vector, and electroporated into Lactobacillus casei competent cells to yield L. casei-β recombinant strain. Surface expression of the recombinant β-toxoid was evaluated by ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Vaccinated BALB/c mice with L. casei-β induced potent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses that were protective against lethal challenges with 100 MLD/mL of the β-toxin. Safety and efficacy of the recombinant clone was evaluated and the presumptive toxicity of L. casei-β was studied by to...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract Clostridium perfringens beta toxin (CPB) is the primary pathogenic factor responsible for necrotic enteritis in sheep, cattle and humans. Owing to rapid progression of the disease, vaccination is the only possible recourse to avoid high mortality in animal farms and huge economic losses. The present study reports evaluation of a cpb gene-based DNA vaccine encoding the beta toxin of C. perfringens with homologous as well as heterologous booster strategy. Immunization strategy employing heterologous booster with heat-inactivated rCPB mounted stronger immune response when compared to that generated by homolo...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
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