{beta}-Blockers, heart disease and COPD: current controversies and uncertainties

Treating people with cardiovascular disease and COPD causes significant clinician anxiety. β-Blockers save lives in people with heart disease, specifically postinfarction and heart failure. COPD and heart disease frequently coexist and people with both disorders have particularly high cardiovascular mortality. There are concerns about giving β-blockers to people with concomitant COPD that include reduced basal lung function, diminished effectiveness of emergency β-agonist treatments, reduced benefit of long-acting β-agonist treatment and difficulty in discriminating between asthma and COPD. β-Blockers appear to reduce lung function in both the general population and those with COPD because they are poorly selective for cardiac β1-adrenoceptors over respiratory β2-adrenoceptors, and studies have shown that higher β-agonist doses are required to overcome the β-blockade. COPD and cardiovascular disease share similar environmental risks and both disease states have high adrenergic and inflammatory activation. β-Blockers may therefore be particularly helpful in reducing cardiovascular events in this high-risk group. They may reduce the background inflammatory state, and inhibit the tachycardia and hypertension associated with both the endogenous adrenaline and high-dose β-agonist treatment associated with acute exacerbations of COPD. Some studies have suggested no increased and, at times, reduced mortality in patients with COP...
Source: Thorax - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: State of the art review Source Type: research

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Discussion The aortic valve usually has 3 leaflets. In bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) there are 2 asymmetric leaflets with a fish-mouthed orifice between them which may not open fully. It occurs in about 0.5-2% of the population making it one of the most common congenital heart anomalies and the most common one in adults. Transmission is autosomal dominant yet males are more likely to have BAV, indicating potential reduced penetrance in females. “BAVs are different, however, in that the tissue pathology is not limited to the valves’ leaflets but extends from the left ventricular outflow tract to the ascending thor...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
ConclusionsDifferences on anxiety tests indicate a possible failure of behavioral inhibition in the treatment group leading to riskier behavior. Binge drinking also impairs motor coordination and object memory, which involve the cerebellar and hippocampal brain regions, respectively. These experiments indicate the potential dangers of binge drinking while the brain is still developing and indicate the need for future studies in this area.
Source: Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryAuthor(s): H. Saghafi, P. Benington, A. AyoubAbstractThe aim of this study was to compare the impact that the orthodontics-first approach and the surgery-first approach have on quality of life, anxiety, and depression in patients treated for dentofacial deformities. Data were collected on 32 patients (aged 17–47 years) who were all treated at a single multidisciplinary orthognathic clinic. They completed a 22-item Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), a seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7...
Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
ConclusionP. karwinskii leaf extract inhibited reactive oxygen species and exerted an anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, this extract did not induce gastric damage in the animals. The bioactivity of the species was found to support its traditional use in traditional medicine. This orchid could be used to treat inflammatory diseases without causing the side effects associated with Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It can also be employed to treat other pathological conditions associated with oxidative stress. The findings herein form the basis for the future discovery of natural products that may serve as safe alternat...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Available literature indicates that radiation exposure affects metabolites associated with: energy production, degradation of proteins and cell membranes, expression of proteins and stress response. Such effects are common for both animal and human studies. However, the specific metabolic response depends on several factors, including the examined organ. Radiation metabolomics can be used to explain the mechanisms of development of radiation-induced heart disease and to find an organ-specific biomarker of radiation exposure. The main aim of this review was to collect the information on the human cardiotoxicity...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research
In this study, we examined the clinical and psychosocial characteristics of youth at familial and clinical high risk (HR) for BD, and compared these characteristics to those of youth with BD I and II. Both groups were recruited based on current, active mood symptoms from separate randomized trials of family therapy. A total of 127 HR youth were evaluated: 52 (40.9%) were diagnosed with BD-NOS and 75 (59.1%) were diagnosed with MDD. Compared to adolescents with BD I and II (n=145), HR youth had higher rates of anxiety disorders, and comparable rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disord...
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Affinity improvement of the fully human anti‑TSLP recombinant antibody. Mol Med Rep. 2020 Feb;21(2):759-767 Authors: Chen Q, Xian D, Xu W, Nian S, Yu H, Wu Y, Yuan Q Abstract Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a potentially important target for the treatment of asthma and malignancies. However, a fully human antibody reactive with TSLP is currently unavailable for clinical use. In a previous study, a human anti‑TSLP‑single‑chain antibody variable fragment (anti‑TSLP‑scFv) 84 was selected by phage display from a constructed human scFv library. In the present study, a computer simulation ...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
This study identified ANRIL as a critical regulator in HPASMCs induced by hypoxia and demonstrated the potential of gene therapy and drug development for treating PAH. PMID: 31974617 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
This study aimed to generate real-world evidence to assess the burden of comorbidities in COPD patients, to effectively manage these patients and optimize the associated healthcare resource allocation. ARCTIC is a large, real-world, retrospective cohort study conducted in Swedish COPD patients using electronic medical record data collected between 2000 and 2014. These patients were studied for prevalence of various comorbidities and for association of these comorbidities with exacerbations, mortality, and healthcare costs compared with an age-, sex-, and comorbidities-matched non-COPD reference population. A total of 17,47...
Source: Primary Care - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: NPJ Prim Care Respir Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: Comorbid disease was frequently recorded in this asthma population. All-cause mortality for the study population did not differ from the Swedish population overall, but a higher death rate due to pulmonary causes (mainly COPD) was seen among the asthma patients.Sponsor: AstraZeneca.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: 1.6 General Practice and Primary Care Source Type: research
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