Widespread activity of multiple lineages of Usutu virus, western Europe, 2016.

Widespread activity of multiple lineages of Usutu virus, western Europe, 2016. Euro Surveill. 2017 Jan 26;22(4): Authors: Cadar D, Lühken R, van der Jeugd H, Garigliany M, Ziegler U, Keller M, Lahoreau J, Lachmann L, Becker N, Kik M, Oude Munnink BB, Bosch S, Tannich E, Linden A, Schmidt V, Koopmans MP, Rijks J, Desmecht D, Groschup MH, Reusken C, Schmidt-Chanasit J Abstract In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four lineages, of which two putative novel lineages were most likely recently introduced into Germany and spread to other western European countries. The spatial extent of the outbreak area corresponded with R0 values> 1. The occurrence of the outbreak, the largest USUV epizootic registered so far in Europe, allowed us to gain insight in how a recently introduced arbovirus with potential public health implications can spread and become a resident pathogen in a naïve environment. Understanding the ecological and epidemiological factors that drive the emergence or re-emergence of USUV is critical to develop and implement timely surveillance strategies for adequate preventive and control measures. Public health authorities, blood transfusion services and clinicians in countries where USUV was detected should be aware of the risk of possible USUV infection in humans, including in p...
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Ileana Z. Martínez, Claudia Pérez-Martínez, Luis M. Salinas, Juan F. García-Marín, Ramón A. Juste, Ana BalseiroABSTRACTSpanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) is a novel tick-borne flavivirus subtype, closely related to the flavivirus louping ill virus (LIV). SGEV caused a severe, acute and mortal neurological disease outbreak in northern Spain in a goat herd. In order to characterize the cell population in lesions and to determine the distribution of the inflammatory cells...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Shalini Sunderam, Dewesh KumarIndian Journal of Community Medicine 2019 44(4):403-403
Source: Indian Journal of Community Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
We reported serological and molecular detection of SLEV in a healthy population of equids and humans from rural areas in Southeast Brazil. A plaque reduction neutralization test was applied, and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 11 individuals (4.6%) and 60 horses (21.5%). A qPCR targeting the 5′UTR region and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) targeting the non-structural protein (NS5) gene were performed and three individuals tested positive in both assays. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis confirmed SLEV circulation and its findings suggest the occurrence of an asymptomatic or subclinical presence in hum...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Years of recurring encephalitis outbreaks and high fatality rates of brain inflammation disease among children in some of India's poorest regions reveal cracks in health care system
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
athieu Measles remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide among vaccine preventable diseases. Recent decline in vaccination coverage resulted in re-emergence of measles outbreaks. Measles virus (MeV) infection causes an acute systemic disease, associated in certain cases with central nervous system (CNS) infection leading to lethal neurological disease. Early following MeV infection some patients develop acute post-infectious measles encephalitis (APME), which is not associated with direct infection of the brain. MeV can also infect the CNS and cause sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in immuno...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Flaviviruses comprise several medically important viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus and Zika virus (ZIKV). A large outbreak of DENV and ZIKV occurred recently, leading to many cases of illness and death. However, despite decades of efforts, we have no clinically specific therapeutic drugs against DENV and ZIKV. Previous studies showed that inflammatory responses play a critical role in dengue and Zika pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we examined a series of novel anti-inflammatory compounds and found that treatment with compound 2d c...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract Flaviviruses are group of single stranded RNA viruses that cause severe endemic infection and epidemics on a global scale. It presents a significant health impact worldwide and the viruses have the potential to emerge and outbreak in a non-endemic geographical region. Effective vaccines for prophylaxis are only available for several flaviviruses such as Yellow Fever virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Dengue Virus and Japanese Encephalitis Virus and there is no antiflaviviral agent being marketed. This review discusses the flavivirus genome, replication cycle, epidemiology, clinical presentation and pat...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Authors: Kumar R, Rajvanshi P, Khosla H, Arora S Abstract Chikungunya is an arboviral infection caused by Chikungunya virus, an RNA virus from Togaviridae family.1 The disease manifests as fever, rash and characteristically, with arthralgia.1 Chikungunya is strongly believed to have neurotropism but has not been well studied like other neurotropic arboviruses.2 Encephalitis appears to represent the most common clinical manifestation6 and occurs either simultaneously or within few days of onset of systemic symptoms, during the period of viremia. A delay of more than two weeks has been reported with other complicatio...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
The TWiV team covers outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the US and poliovirus in the Philippines, and explain how a chemokine induced by HIV-1 infection helps release more virus particles from cells. Click arrow to play Download TWiV 567 (68 MB .mp3, 112 min) Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Show notes at microbe.tv/twiv
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: This Week in Virology ALIX alphavirus CCL2 chemokine cytoskeleton eastern equine encephalitis virus EEE ESCRT HIV-1 IPV OPV outbreak poliovirus togavirus vaccine viral virus budding viruses Source Type: blogs
Authors: Thankachy S, Dash S, Sahu SS Abstract Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne arbo-viral disease with seasonal occurrence. Since 2009, AES/JE cases have been reported from Malkangiri district of Odisha State, India at an interval of one year.In the current study, the entomological parameters of known JE vector mosquito species were assessed for one year in Malkangiri district. Mosquito collections were done fortnightly in the index villages from August 2015 to July 2016 to record the density, their breeding habitats, feeding behaviour, parity, dusk index (DI) and infection status with JE virus. A total o...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research
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