What Three Decades Of Pandemic Threats Can Teach Us About The Future

Editor’s Note: This post reflects on a speech on pandemic preparedness Dr. Fauci gave on January 10, 2017 in Washington, DC, hosted by  The Center for Global Health Science and Security at Georgetown University Medical Center, the Harvard Global Health Institute, and Health Affairs. One of the most important challenges facing the new Administration is preparedness for the pandemic outbreak of an infectious disease. Infectious diseases will continue to pose a significant threat to public health and the economies of countries worldwide. The U.S. government will need to continue its investment to combat these diseases wherever they emerge, and to conduct crucial research and development of medical countermeasures in the form of vaccines, treatments, and diagnostics to rapidly respond to emerging infectious disease threats. In the 1960s, many notable physicians and scientists expressed the belief that the availability of antibiotics and vaccines meant that infectious diseases would not pose a serious threat in the future. However, these individuals failed to look beyond the borders of resource-rich countries or to recognize that new diseases would continue to emerge, and diseases would re-emerge in new locations and geographic areas where they had been previously eliminated. Today, infectious diseases cause approximately 15 percent of all deaths around the world, accounting for approximately 8.4 million deaths in 2015. In 1984, I became the director of the Nationa...
Source: Health Affairs Blog - Category: Health Management Authors: Tags: Featured Global Health Policy Ebola HIV/AIDS NIH pandemic preparedness Zika Source Type: blogs

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Publication date: 6 December 2019Source: Journal of Molecular Biology, Volume 431, Issue 24Author(s): Laura Jo Sherwood, Alexander Bryan Taylor, Peter John Hart, Andrew HayhurstAbstractWe had previously shown that three anti–Marburg virus nanobodies (VHH or single-domain antibody [sdAb]) targeted a cryptotope within an alpha-helical assembly at the nucleoprotein (NP) C-terminus that was conserved through half a century of viral evolution. Here, we wished to determine whether an anti–Ebola virus sdAb, that was cross-reactive within the Ebolavirus genus, recognized a similar structural feature upstream of the ebo...
Source: Journal of Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
ConclusionA new SGI1 variant, SGI1-XJ9S, was characterized in this study for the first time. The draft genome sequence of S. Kentucky ST198 strain XJ9S isolated from poultry slaughter house provides valuable information for tracing the potential spread of this MDR clone from poultry products processing to consumption, even to humans.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Peijun Yvonne Zhou, Tze Peng Lim, Si Lin Sarah Tang, Yixin Liew, Sy Grace Nathalie Chua, Li Ling Cheryl Lim, Hui Ling Winnie Lee, Si Xuan Tan, Oi Fah Lai, Thuan Tong Tan, Gee Chuan Wong, Andrea Hoon Lay KwaAbstractIntroductionVoriconazole serum concentration, which is affected by several factors, is associated with treatment response and toxicity. There is paucity of data on voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) among Southeast Asians, who exhibit a higher prevalence of CYP2C19 poor metabolisers compared...
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This study aimed to explore the association between serum syndecan-1 and glypican-3 levels and the adverse perinatal outcome as well as the responses to the treatment of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA).MethodsThis prospective, case control study included 88 pregnant women (44 women with ICP and 44 healthy controls). The primary end points were the perinatal outcome and the response to UDCA therapy. A logistic regression model was used to identify the independent risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcomes and reduced response to UDCA therapy.ResultsWomen with ICP had significantly higher serum syndecan-1 (1.27 ± 0.36 ng/...
Source: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
ConclusionsAdjunctive procedures that can facilitate a decrease in the cumulative dosages of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants have great value in the management of PV. CO2 laser vaporization is a safe procedure with minimal morbidity and no long-term side effects and should be considered as an adjunctive treatment option for management of recalcitrant lesions in patients with oral PV.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a tropical arbovirosis characterized by sudden fever, headache, rash, and severe arthralgia. The disease has been suggested to act as a trigger for several autoimmune disorders, especially rheumatoid arthritis. This abstract reports 2 cases of Sj ögren syndrome (SS) following CHIK infection. Both patients were female and presented with fever, arthralgia, rash, and arthritis during CHIK outbreak in Recife, Brazil. After several months, they developed severe sicca symptoms and 1 of them presented with parotid enlargement.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by thromboembolic events or pregnancy-related complications caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. The following case reports a patient diagnosed with APS, osteoporosis, and atherosclerosis. The medication for treatment and control of the diseases were warfarin, low-molecular-weight heparin, aspirin, and alendronate. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed an intraoral fistula, with spontaneous purulent drainage in a 2-month previous tooth extraction area and signs of bone sequestrum both compatible with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ).
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Oral manifestations in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur in a large proportion of patients. A 28-year-old man with AIDS was referred from medicine service due to multiple oral lesions of unknown clinical progress. The patient presented with lymphopenia (a CD4+ T-cell count of 11 cell/ μL) and noncompliance with antiretroviral treatment (viral load 59,100 copies/mL). An extensive ulcer of 30 × 14 mm with a marked erythematous halo on the left buccal mucosa was observed. An incisional biopsy and a culture were performed to evaluate for the presence of infectious diseases.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic systemic disease. This condition can be manifested if the patient is infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This virus attacks the immune system and interferes in the host resistance. Consequently, infected organisms become immunosuppressed and susceptible to acquiring other opportunistic infections and injuries. The HIV-related diseases most frequent in the oral cavity are candidiasis, gingivitis, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex, and Kaposi sarcoma.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
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