Awareness of predictors of mortality may help improve outcome in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a severe fungal infection usually seen in immunocompetent patients with underlying respiratory disorders [1]. Estimates suggest that ~3 million people suffer from CPA globally [2]. The precise prevalence is unknown. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) seems to be the most relevant driver for the global burden of CPA with estimates suggesting about 1.2 million patients with CPA as a sequel to TB [3]. Given that there were 10.4 million new TB cases in 2015, CPA represents a serious sequela to pulmonary TB [4]. However, any search for CPA in the Global Tuberculosis Report of the World Health Organization (WHO) is still in vain [4]. The relative frequency of CPA after standard antituberculous treatment is estimated to be 17% after 12 months and increases to 22% after 48 months. This data, however, is based on two historic UK studies from 1968 and 1970 in which fungal evidence was confirmed by Aspergillus precipitins (59% sensitivity, 100% specificity) and radiological features considered only aspergilloma [3, 5, 6]. Thus, the frequency of CPA might even be higher, when using Aspergillus-specific IgG antibody assays, which are superior to Aspergillus precipitins with a sensitivity of up to 96% and a specificity of 98%, and when radiological criteria consider all CPA entities, especially chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) [7]. Follow-up visits of TB patients, especially those with cavitary TB, should always include a diag...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Editorials Source Type: research

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Authors: Takeshita N Abstract Filamentous fungi are covered by a cell wall consisting mainly of chitin and glucan. The synthesis of chitin, a β-1,4-linked homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is essential for hyphal morphogenesis. Fungal chitin synthases are integral membrane proteins that have been classified into seven classes. ChsB, a class III chitin synthase, is known to play a key role in hyphal tip growth and has been used here as a model to understand the cell biology of cell wall biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans. Chitin synthases are transported on secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane for new ...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research
Authors: Orsini D Abstract Poverty, high population density and unhealthy dwellings in Siena's historic district accounted for the spread of tuberculosis in its various forms between the mid-nineteenth century and the first three decades of the twentieth century. In this paper, the author relies on statistical data relating to a time span between 1898 and 1935 to discuss the high incidence of scrofula, or tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands, among Siena's infant population.The result is a description of the most important actions implemented at city level to prevent tuberculosis and to assist and treat sick childr...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
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Source: Mycology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Mycology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Yun-An Chen, Pao-Wen Grace Liu, Liang-Ming Whang, Yi-Ju Wu, Sheng-Shung ChengThe purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of soil organic matter (SOM) content levels on the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Batch experiments were conducted with soils with 2% or 10% organic matter that had been contaminated by diesel or fuel oil. In addition to the TPH (diesel or fuel oil) degradation efficiency, a comprehensive investigation was conducted on the TPH-degrading microbial community using m...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Process BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xueqiang Liu, Zhengqiang Jiang, Shuai Ma, Qiaojuan Yan, Zixian Chen, Haijie LiuABSTRACTA novel β-1,3-1,4-glucanase gene (AaBglu12A) from Aspergillus awamori was extracellularly expressed in Pichia pastoris. AaBglu12A showed amino acid identity of 96% with a glycoside hydrolase family 12 cellulase from A. kawachii and 48% with a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Magnaporthe oryzae. The highest β-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity of 159,500 ± 500 U/mL with protein concentration of 31.7 ± 0.3&thins...
Source: Process Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
This study presents a combined dielectrophoresis (DEP) - Raman Spectroscopy (RS) method to obtain direct, real-time measurements of the susceptibility of a suspension of planktonic bacteria without labelling or other time-consuming and intrusive sample preparation processes. Using an in-house constructed DEP-Raman device, we demonstrated the susceptibility of Escherichia coli MG1655 towards the second-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CP) after only 1 h of treatment, by monitoring spectral changes in the chemical fingerprint of bacteria related to the mode of action of the drug. Spectral variance ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research - Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we show that CRISPR/Cas9 can also be used to efficiently change functional properties of the proteins encoded by the target gene by on-site genomic mutations in A. niger. The obtained strains with constitutively active XlnR and GaaR versions resulted in increased production of plant biomass degrading enzymes and improved release of D-xylose and L-arabinose from wheat bran, and D-galacturonic acid from sugar beet pulp.
Source: Enzyme and Microbial Technology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Filipe Soares Bertges, Maria da Penha Henriques do Amaral, Mirian Pereira Rodarte, Maria José Vieira Fonseca, Orlando Vieira Sousa, Fernanda Maria Pinto Vilela, Maria Silvana AlvesAbstractGreen coffee beans (GCB) (Coffea arabica L.) contain phenolic compounds with proven antioxidant capacity. GCB fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae was focused on the biotransformation of phenolic compounds into smaller molecules targeting a greater skin penetration. GCB was fermented under solid state for 24, 36, and 48 h...
Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
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