Two-lock box delivers cancer therapy: Nano-delivery system targets cancer cells

A tunable virus that works like a safe deposit box has been developed by scientists. It takes two keys to open it and release its therapy for cancer and other diseases. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) developed by bioengineers unlocks only in the presence of two selected proteases, enzymes that cut up other proteins for disposal. Because certain proteases are elevated at tumor sites, the viruses can be designed to target and destroy the cancer cells.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Mark E. Gray1,2*, James Meehan2,3, Paul Sullivan4, Jamie R. K. Marland4, Stephen N. Greenhalgh1, Rachael Gregson1, Richard Eddie Clutton1, Carol Ward2, Chris Cousens5, David J. Griffiths5, Alan Murray4 and David Argyle1 1The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 2Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre and Division of Pathology Laboratories, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 3School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Institute of Sensors, Signals and Systems, Heriot-Watt Univer...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Future Perspectives It is now evident that NK/ILC family plays a pivotal role in the immune defenses. Recent studies in murine and human settings demonstrated that the expression of several inhibitory checkpoints, that may be detrimental in the tumor context, is not restricted to T lymphocytes, revealing an important, yet poorly appreciated, contribution of their expression on innate immune cells. Thus, in the recent years different immunotherapy approaches, based on the blockade of inhibitory NK cell receptors, have been developed in order to unleash NK cell cytotoxicity. This is particularly important in...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated whether SNT-induced cardiotoxicity could be prevented by blocking SNT-induced alteration in the corresponding signaling pathways. In human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, SNT (0.5-20 µmol/L) inhibited contractility of cardiomyocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, and the inhibitory effect was prevented either by PIP3 (1 µmol/L) application or PI3K overexpression. On the contrary, the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 (50 nmol/L), PKA inhibitor H89 (1 µmol/L), and AMPK activators metformin (2 mmol/L) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide...
Source: Archives of Toxicology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Arch Toxicol Source Type: research
Authors: Wu H, Mei YF Abstract The usefulness for cancer therapy of replication-competent adenoviral vectors expressing therapeutic genes from the E3 region has been evaluated, but few reports have described replication-competent adenoviruses with insertions at the E1 region in the full viral genome. We investigated in different prostate cancer cells the oncolytic efficacy of the replication-competent adenovirus 11p vectors expressing adenovirus death (RCAd11pADP) and red fluorescence (RCAd11pRFP) proteins from the upstream E1 region. ADP/RFP gene expression was 2-3 logs higher in PC3 and DU145 cells than in LNCaP ...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Conclusion: We reported the synergistic anti-tumor efficacy of ZD55-IL-24 and DTX on prostate cancer. Our results suggest that chemotherapy combined with oncolytic adenovirus mediated gene therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2018Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Michael A. Boemo, Helen M. ByrneAbstractTumour hypoxia has long presented a challenge for cancer therapy: Poor vascularisation in hypoxic regions hinders both the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and the response to radiotherapy, and hypoxic cancer cells that survive treatment can trigger tumour regrowth after treatment has ended. Tumour-associated macrophages are attractive vehicles for drug delivery because they localise in hypoxic areas of the tumour. In this paper, we derive a mathematical model for the infiltration of...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Paolo Ciana Oncolytic viruses (OV) are engineered to infect, replicate in and kill cancer cells. Currently, the OV therapeutic approach is mainly restricted to neoplasia amenable to direct local administration of viral particles, while the possibility of a systemic delivery of cancer-tropic viruses would extend the OV application to the treatment of metastatic neoplasia. Herein, we applied in vivo/ex vivo imaging to demonstrate that cancer tropism is achieved when OV are encapsulated inside extracellular vesicles (EV) administered intravenously (i.v.), but not when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Moreover, we show t...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
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