An influential theory about emotion and decision-making just failed a new test

By Christian Jarrett It’s a common belief that to make optimal decisions we need to be more logical and less emotional, rather like Mr Spock in Star Trek. In fact, much evidence argues against this. Consider the behaviour of patients whose brain damage has made them unusually cold and logical. Rather than this helping them make decisions, they often seem paralysed by indecision. These patients, who usually have damage to parts of their frontal cortex, also tend to perform poorly on a game that’s used by psychologists to measure risk-taking behaviour: the Iowa Gambling Task. The neurologist and author Antonio Damasio thinks this is because they have lost the ability to incorporate gut instincts – literally, their visceral reactions – into their decision-making, an idea that forms the basis of his Somatic Marker Hypothesis. This hypothesis has been very influential but the evidence supporting it, now gathered over several decades, is nearly all based on research using the Iowa Gambling Task. In a recent paper in Decision, two British psychologists tested the Somatic Marker Hypothesis in a new context, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task, which involves deciding how far to pump a balloon. They found little evidence to support the central tenet of the Somatic Marker Hypothesis, the idea that our physiological reactions shape our decisions. Rebecca Wright at the University of Essex and Tim Rakow at King’s ...
Source: BPS RESEARCH DIGEST - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Decision making Emotion Source Type: blogs

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CONCLUSIONS: A variety of anorectal complaints are diagnosed as hemorrhoids by providers who have initial contact with the patients. Educational programs directed toward improving physician knowledge can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy and earlier initiation of appropriate care. Presenting symptoms other than protrusion lead to higher rate of misdiagnosis by a referring physician. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A847. PMID: 31188188 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Pain Physician - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Dis Colon Rectum Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: For grade III hemorrhoids THD technique provides the same results of MM, while for grade IV hemorrhoids we believe that better result can be achieved with MM technique. However, we deem that in cases of grade IV hemorrhoids the choice between THD and MM can be more rationally made on the basis of objective examination with the patient in the operating position and already anesthetized and therefore in complete relaxation. KEY WORDS: Transanal Hemorrhoidal Dearterialization THD, Milligan-Morgan Hemorrhoidectomy, Post-operative Pain, Hemorrhoids. PMID: 31182699 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia - Category: Surgery Tags: Ann Ital Chir Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: A variety of anorectal complaints are diagnosed as hemorrhoids by providers who have initial contact with the patients. Educational programs directed toward improving physician knowledge can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy and earlier initiation of appropriate care. Presenting symptoms other than protrusion lead to higher rate of misdiagnosis by a referring physician. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A847.
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Contribution: Anorectal Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the effects of A. austriaca flowers, which are frequently used in gynecological disorders, on the rat endometriosis model. The rat endometriosis model was used to evaluate the potential activity of the plant in endometriosis. The dried plant material was extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol (MeOH), successively. The obtained extracts from A. austriaca flowers were applied to the rats. The adhesion scores, endometrial foci areas, and cytokine levels of the peritoneal fluids were measured on surgical induction of endometriosis in rats. The adhesion scores, endometriotic...
Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
With an estimated economic burden in the billions of dollars, it's time to treat this prevalent but forgotten disease, says Dr David Johnson.Medscape Gastroenterology
Source: Medscape Gastroenterology Headlines - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gastroenterology Commentary Source Type: news
Feeling pain in the buttocks is common during pregnancy. Often, it is due to extra pressure from the growing uterus, which can cause sciatica or hemorrhoids. Here, learn about these and other sources of butt pain during pregnancy.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Pregnancy / Obstetrics Source Type: news
Conditions:   Colorectal Cancer;   Gastric Cancer;   Inflammatory Bowel Diseases;   Gastric Ulcer;   Hemorrhoids;   Hernia Intervention:   Other: No intervention will be given to patients. Sponsor:   Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Nature, Published online: 03 June 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-01746-xPachyderms use their trunks to discriminate between two hidden food piles of unequal size.
Source: Nature AOP - Category: Research Source Type: research
Conclusion: The THD technique is a safe and effective procedure for grades II and III hemorrhoids, has lower rates of post-operative pain and bleeding, and allows faster hospital discharge; however, it also shows a higher rate of recurrence at three years of follow-up. PMID: 31142105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of Coloproctology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Coloproctol Source Type: research
Authors: Šabanović M, Jašić M, Odobašić A, Aleksovska ES, Pavljašević S, Bajraktarević A, Čepo DV Abstract Background: Oral dietary supplementation is becoming increasingly popular as an addition to classical approaches for the prevention and treatment of hemorrhoidal disease. Aim: To examine the effect of orally administrated alpha lipoic acid (ALA), known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, in the treatment of patients with permanent symptoms of hemorrhoidal disease. Methods: Patients with second- and third-degree hemorrhoids (n = 100) were enrolled i...
Source: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research - Category: Nutrition Tags: Int J Vitam Nutr Res Source Type: research
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