A novel methodology to study polymodal particle size distributions produced during continuous wet granulation
Publication date: 15 March 2017 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 519, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Carlota Mendez Torrecillas, Gavin W. Halbert, Dimitrios A. Lamprou It is important during powder granulation to obtain particles of a homogeneous size especially in critical situations such as pharmaceutical manufacture. To date, homogeneity of particle size distribution has been defined by the use of the d50 combined with the span of the particle size distribution, which has been found ineffective for polymodal particle size distributions. This work focuses on demonstrating the limitations of the span parameter to quantify homogeneity and proposes a novel improved metric based on the transformation of a typical particle size distribution curve into a homogeneity factor which can vary from 0 to 100%. The potential of this method as a characterisation tool has been demonstrated through its application to the production of granules using two different materials. The workspace of an 11mm twin screw granulator was defined for two common excipients (α-lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose). Homogeneity of the obtained granules varied dramatically from 0 to 95% in the same workspace, allowing identification of critical process parameters (e.g. feed rate, liquid/solid ratio, torque velocities). In addition it defined the operational conditions required to produce the most homogeneous product within the range 5μm–2.2mm from both materials...
Research should be "wakeup call," advocates say, though industry plans ban on most such blinds
Thousands of local government workers and school support staff are to take part in stunts, events and mini-protests across the country today (Friday) in an attempt to persuade the Chancellor to stop the cuts and guarantee councils and schools the money to give staff a pay rise, without them having to cut jobs and services. UNISON, Unite and the GMB, the three unions representing local government employees in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, have organised the Pay Up Now day of action. In towns and cities across the three nations, social workers, school crossing patrol staff, librarians, school receptionists, refuse col...
SNOWY weather over the weekend has been followed by cold snap that could trigger an increase in the number of heart attacks and strokes, the NHS has warned.
Abstract Mating behaviour often increases predation risk, but the vulnerability within mating pairs differs between the sexes. Such a sex difference is expected to lead to differences in responses to predation risk between the sexes. In the two‐spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, males engage in pre‐copulatory mate guarding because only the first mating results in fertilisation. We investigated (i) whether pre‐copulatory pairs are more conspicuous to the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis than solitary females, (ii) whether the vulnerability to the predator differs between sexes within the pre‐copulatory p...
Giving CDK4/6 inhibitors to breast cancer patients aged ≥ 70 years yields a similar progression-free survival to that seen in younger women, although the toxicity is more severe, say FDA researchers.Medscape Medical News
JAKARTA (Reuters) - Health authorities in Jakarta kicked off a special immunization program on Monday to rein in an "extraordinary" outbreak of diphtheria that has sparked concerns about the Indonesian capital ’s readiness to host the Asian Games next June. Diphtheria cases have spiked 42 percent since last year, health officials say, with at least 32 deaths and more than 590 cases recorded across the archipelago, the bulk of them in densely populated Jakarta and neighboring provinces.
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Dawn L. Taylor-Mulneix, Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Bodo Linz, Eric T. Harvill