Viruses, Vol. 9, Pages 22: Astrovirus Pathogenesis

Astroviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in the young, elderly, and the immunocompromised. Since the discovery of human astrovirus type 1 (HAstV-1) in 1975, the family Astroviridae has expanded to include two more human clades and numerous mammalian and avian-specific genotypes. Despite this, there is still little known about pathogenesis. The following review highlights the current knowledge of astrovirus pathogenesis, and outlines the critical steps needed to further astrovirus research, including the development of animal models of cell culture systems.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used for simultaneous detection and genotyping of ten viruses in duck, including Duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV-1), DHAV-3, Duck astrovirus 1 (DAstV-1), DAstV-2, Duck reovirus 1 (DRV-1), DRV-2, Tembusu virus (TMUV), Avian influenza virus (AIV), Goose parvovirus (GPV) and Duck enteritis virus (DEV). The low detection limits of this proposed method for ten duck viruses ranged from 1.3 copies/μl to 7.8 copies/μl. The novel detection method with high sensitivity, good specificity and high throughput has the pote...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
In this study we aimed to verify clinical ND suspicions in poultry holdings in Egypt suffering from respiratory distress and elevated mortality, comparing two groups of ND-vaccinated poultry holdings in three governorates. Besides testing for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), samples were screened for infectious bronchits virus (IBV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) by RT-qPCR as well as by non-directed cell-culture approach on LMH-cells. Virulent NDV was confirmed only in group A (n = 16) comprising small-scale holdings. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of 11 NDV-positive samples obtained from th...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract Since 2017, a new type of goose-origin astrovirus (GoAstV) disease occurred in China. This disease can cause joint swelling of sick geese, and the anatomy shows a clear urate precipitation in the viscera. The rate of death or amputation can reach more than 30%, revealing its severe pathogenicity. One novel goose-origin astrovirus strain, designated as CXZ18, was isolated from diseased geese with a fatal infection characterized by visceral urate deposition. Similar clinical anatomy symptoms were partially reproduced by attacking infection of healthy geese. The CXZ18 has no hemagglutination with chicken ery...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Astroviruses (AstVs) are responsible for infection of a large diversity of mammalian and avian species, including bats, aquatic birds, livestock and humans. We investigated AstVs circulation in bats in Mozambi...
Source: Virology Journal - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Short report Source Type: research
Astroviruses are a diverse family of viruses that infect a wide range of mammalian and avian hosts. Here we describe the phylogenetic diversity and current classification methodology of astroviruses based on the ORF1b and ORF2 genes, highlighting the propensity of astroviruses to undergo interspecies transmission and genetic recombination which greatly increase diversity and complicate attempts at a unified and comprehensive classification strategy.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
JD Abstract Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, the effect of urbanization on natural host-pathogen systems remains poorly understood. Urban ducks occupy an interesting niche in that they directly interact with both humans and wild migratory birds, and either directly or indirectly with food production birds. Here we have collected samples from Mallards residing in a pond in central Uppsala, Sweden, from January 2013 to January 2014. This artificial pond is kept ice-free during the winter months, and is a popular location where the ducks are fed, r...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Although a relatively recently emerged virus, identified only in 2004 as a separate species of avian astrovirus, chicken astrovirus (CAstV) has been associated with poor growth of broiler flocks, enteritis and diarrhea and is a candidate pathogen in cases of runting stunting syndrome. More recently CAstV has been implicated in cases of two other diseases of broilers as the sole etiological agent, namely severe kidney disease of young broilers with visceral gout and the “White Chicks” hatchery disease. Examination of the strains of CAstV associated with the two latter diseases reveals they are closely related ge...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Astroviruses are enterically transmitted viruses that cause infections in mammalian and avian species. Astroviruses are nonenveloped, icosahedral viruses comprised of a capsid protein shell and a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. The capsid protein undergoes dramatic proteolytic processing both inside and outside of the host cell, resulting in a coordinated maturation process that affects cellular localization, virus structure, and infectivity. After maturation, the capsid protein controls the initial phases of virus infection, including virus attachment, endocytosis, and genome release into the host cell. The as...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This study revealed for the first time that PAstV4 is circulating in China, and that PAstV5 is the dominant genotype in pig herds in Hunan province in China.
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In conclusion, a large number of broiler chicken flocks experiencing enteritis were positive for CAstV and ANV by RT-PCR. The presence of more than one enteric virus in enteritis-affected flocks and changes at the genetic level in these viruses may affect the severity of disease. PMID: 27928915 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
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