Exploring gastrointestinal variables affecting drug and formulation behavior: Methodologies, challenges and opportunities

Publication date: 15 March 2017 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 519, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Bart Hens, Maura Corsetti, Robin Spiller, Luca Marciani, Tim Vanuytsel, Jan Tack, Arjang Talattof, Gordon L. Amidon, Mirko Koziolek, Werner Weitschies, Clive G. Wilson, Roelof J. Bennink, Joachim Brouwers, Patrick Augustijns Various gastrointestinal (GI) factors affect drug and formulation behavior after oral administration, including GI transfer, motility, pH and GI fluid volume and composition. An in-depth understanding of these physiological and anatomical variables is critical for a continued progress in oral drug development. In this review, different methodologies (invasive versus non-invasive) to explore the impact of physiological variables on formulation behavior in the human GI tract are presented, revealing their strengths and limitations. The techniques mentioned allow for an improved understanding of the role of following GI variables: gastric emptying (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintigraphy, acetaminophen absorption technique, ultrasonography, breath test, intraluminal sampling and telemetry), motility (MRI, small intestinal/colonic manometry and telemetry), GI volume changes (MRI and ultrasonography), temperature (telemetry) and intraluminal pH (intraluminal sampling and telemetry). Graphical abstract
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Lana Vasung, Esra Abaci Turk, Silvina L. Ferradal, Jason Sutin, Jeffrey N. Stout, Banu Ahtam, Pei-Yi Lin, P. Ellen GrantAbstractEarly brain development, from embryonic period to infancy, is characterized by rapid structural and functional changes. These changes can be studied using structural and physiological neuroimaging methods. In order to optimally acquire and accurately interpret this data, concepts from adult neuroimaging cannot be directly transferred. Instead, one must have a basic understanding of fetal and neonatal structural and physiol...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe study showed the underutilization of informed consent and quality-of-life questionnaires. PSAd was not included as a decisive element in the initial strategy for most researchers. There was a lack of confidence in the urologists’ mpMRI experience and an underutilization of the transperineal pathway. There was also no consensus on the follow-up protocols and active treatment criteria, confirming the need for prospective studies to analyze the role of mpMRI and biomarkers.ResumenIntroducciónNuestro objetivo principal es describir la utilización actual en España de la vigilancia activ...
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
ConclusionsImpingement-type bony morphology was related to cartilage defects, but not labral tear. Hip pain was not associated with pathology or bony morphology. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine if bony features, such as cam morphology, acetabular retroversion or anteversion, are precursors to symptomatic hip joint injury or osteoarthritis.
Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport - Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionOur data provide further evidence that PD_OFF and PD_ON participants engage different cortical and subcortical systems to achieve similar levels of cognitive performance as HC. Crucially, our findings demonstrate dopamine-related dissociation in brain activation between cortical and subcortical regions, and provide novel support for the dopamine overdose hypothesis.
Source: Neuropsychologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe ADC may improve the quality of the diagnostic hypothesis, particularly in the differentiation between benign and malignant disease. Furthermore, the differences between certain types of lesions could be determined using the ADC. However, further studies focusing on inflammatory diseases should be performed. Overall, DWI and the ADC are promising methods that can be incorporated into routine evaluations.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
This study enrolled 1875 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (age range: 20–78 years). VFA was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging.ResultsThe study population consisted of 1573 subjects without a FHD, 115 subjects with a paternal FHD, and 187 subjects with a maternal FHD. For both genders, VFA was greater in offspring with a maternal FHD compared with those without a FHD (both P 
Source: Obesity Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: European Journal of RadiologyAuthor(s): Kun-ming Yi, Kang Chen, Lu Wang, Xiao-juan Deng, Ying Zeng, Yi WangAbstractPurposeTo describe the radiological characteristics of pilomatricomas on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to correlate the radiological findings and pathological features.Materials and methodsThe radiological findings of 41 pilomatricomas in 31 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The images were evaluated with emphasis on calciļ¬cations, reticular and ring-like appearances, enhancement patterns, circu...
Source: European Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionDiagnostic accuracy of FLAIR in detection of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients presenting with severe headache taking lumbar puncture as gold standard is higher and reliable.
Source: Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
We present a case of 20-year-old woman who presented with a large pedunculated skin covered mass lesion arising from the left thigh, measuring 40  × 25 cm, with no history of pain or skin ulceration and a feeling of a lump with dragging pain in the left side of the abdomen for about 7 years. Subsequently, ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of abdomen and left thigh region were carried out. The lesion was broad-based toward the left upper thigh with a central core of interspersed fat supplied by branches of the superficial and deep femoral arteries...
Source: Skeletal Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
We present a unique case of a 45-year-old male who fell on his flexed right hand. He presented with a subtle but extremely painful mass on the dorsum of his wrist. Ultrasound (U/S) imaging of the mass revealed an avulsed bone fragment attached to the ECRL tendon, confirming the clinical suspicion of an ECRL avulsion injury. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are well-documented imaging modalities to detect tendon avulsions. As demonstrated by this case report, U/S is an excellent diagnostic tool for ECRL rupture, a cost-effective alternative that provides real-time dynamic examination of hand injuries. To o...
Source: Skeletal Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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