Genetic characterisation of novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 viruses isolated in birds, South Korea, November 2016.

Genetic characterisation of novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 viruses isolated in birds, South Korea, November 2016. Euro Surveill. 2017 Jan 05;22(1): Authors: Si YJ, Lee IW, Kim EH, Kim YI, Kwon HI, Park SJ, Nguyen HD, Kim SM, Kwon JJ, Choi WS, Beak YH, Song MS, Kim CJ, Webby RJ, Choi YK Abstract A novel genotype of H5N6 influenza viruses was isolated from migratory birds in South Korea during November 2016. Domestic outbreaks of this virus were associated with die-offs of wild birds near reported poultry cases in Chungbuk province, central South Korea. Genetic analysis and animal studies demonstrated that the Korean H5N6 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and that these viruses are novel reassortants of at least three different subtypes (H5N6, H4N2 and H1N1). PMID: 28079520 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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A recent study in this journal compared codon usage among NA subtypes (N1, N2, N6, and N8)  of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) and suggested that codon usage in N1 subtype is better adapted to its host than the epidemic NA subtypes (N6 and N8), which had fewer number of human cases compared to the N1 subtype.1 To date, there are 18 known HA subtypes (H1-H18) and 11 known NA subtypes (N1-N11)2. However, only N1 and N2 subtypes have been reported to cause pandemics (H1N1 for the 1918 and 2009 pandemics; H2N2 for the 1957 pandemic; and H3N2 for the 1968 pandemic) or seasonal outbreaks in humans3.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Armando Isibasi Constantino López-Macías The clinical effects and immunological response to the influenza vaccine in women who later become pregnant remain to be thoroughly studied. Here, we report the medical outcomes of 40 women volunteers who became pregnant after vaccination with an experimental virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 (influenza A(H1N1)pdm09) and their infants. When included in the VLP vaccine trial, none of the women were pregnant and were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) placebo, (2) 15 μg dose of VLP vaccine, or (3) ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
This article summarizes Canada's pandemic public health measures strategy, as described in the recently updated CPIP Public Health Measures Annex. The strategy builds on lessons learned during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Key elements of the public health measures strategy include individual measures (e.g. hand hygiene, self-isolation when ill), community-based measures (e.g. school closures, cancellation of mass gatherings), management of cases and close contacts, travel and border-related actions and public education. Factors that influence the effectiveness of public health measures in a pandemic include the pandemic epidemi...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONSAs healthcare systems continue to grow, a more flexible, regional approach to pandemic planning with structured interventions that can be tailored to each site is vital to maintain a safe environment.
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We describe the unexpected binding of S-layer to cells devoid of DC-SIGN but also confirm that the presence of DC-SIGN was essential for S-layer’s antiviral activity. S-layer protein exerted its antiviral effect with different kinetics than mannan, a known viral inhibitor that also acts on DC-SIGN (Yu et al., 2017). Together our results suggest that inhibition of viral entry by S-layer occurs via a novel S-layer/DC-SIGN interaction. Materials and Methods Isolation of S-Layer Proteins S-layer proteins were extracted from overnight cultures of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 cells grown in MRS medium at 37°C by using 6...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Rui Dong1, Lily He1, Rong Lucy He2 and Stephen S.-T. Yau1* 1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 2Department of Biological Sciences, Chicago State University, Chicago, IL, United States Classification of DNA sequences is an important issue in the bioinformatics study, yet most existing methods for phylogenetic analysis including Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) are time-consuming and computationally expensive. The alignment-free methods are popular nowadays, whereas the manual intervention in those methods usually decreases the accuracy. Also, the interactions among nucleotid...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In conclusion, road transport and socioeconomic status had significant impacts and should be considered for the prevention and control of future pandemics.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
The flu season is up and running in the Northern Hemisphere, and early signs in both the United States and Europe are that the effects might not be quite as severe as the brutal 2017/18 season. The United States is predominantly seeing H1N1 circulating, while monitoring in Europe has identified co-circulation of H1N1 and H3N2—both varieties of Influenza A that should be covered by the seasonable vaccine. What if they weren’t though? Influenza A can be found in both human and animal populations, and it evolves rapidly through genetic mutation. Each year many humans rely on their country&a...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
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