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In Depth Life-saving diphtheria drug is running out

Two children have died in Europe in the past 2 years because they suffered from diphtheria and did not get an antiserum that neutralizes the deadly toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae in time. The antitoxin, produced in horses, is in short supply worldwide; the market is too small to make production profitable. The European Center for Disease Control and Prevention is planning to highlight the shortage in a report expected early in 2017 that will also address Europe's diagnostic capacity for diphtheria. Meanwhile, researchers are trying to make the antitoxin in cell culture, which could help shore up production and improve quality. Author: Kai Kupferschmidt
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Author(s): Richard T. Kangethe, Rudolf Pichler, Francis N.J. Chuma, Giovanni Cattoli, Viskam Wijewardana During both human and animal vaccine development phases, animal testing is necessary to demonstrate vaccine efficacy. Since the number of antigen candidates for testing is usually large when developing a potential vaccine, it is too costly, time consuming and would involve higher risks to carry out selection using in vivo models. The currently available in vitro assays that measure immunogenicity do not adequately reprod...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
World Health Organization. 12/2017 This course is for clinicians who will be or are caring for patients with respiratory diphtheria during outbreaks in vulnerable settings, such as in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. It is also applicable to clinicians working in settings that share similar challenges due to limited laboratory capacity, limited availability of treatment facilities, limited number of trained staff, and limitations in medications, medical supplies, and supportive care. It discusses how to recognize patients with respiratory diphtheria, and give antitoxin and antibiotics safely to appropriate patients. (Video or Mult...
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: news
Source: What's New at CBER - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: news
Source: What's New at CBER - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: news
Abstract Diphtheria AB toxin mode of action. The diphtheria AB exotoxin consists of two polypeptide chains - A and B which are linked by a disulfide bridge. The B chain binds to the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor precursor on eukaryotic cells and is endocytosed. Acidification of the endosome results in a conformational change to the A and B chains and breaking of the disulphide bridge. The B chain remains in the endosome, but the A chain is translocated to the cytoplasm where it ADP-ribosylates host eEF-2, blocking protein synthesis which leads to cell death.Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a globally impor...
Source: Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29457218 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research
Authors: Eiset AH, Wejse C Abstract An unprecedented rise in the number of asylum seekers and refugees was seen in Europe in 2015, and it seems that numbers are not going to be reduced considerably in 2016. Several studies have tried to estimate risk of infectious diseases associated with migration but only very rarely these studies make a distinction on reason for migration. In these studies, workers, students, and refugees who have moved to a foreign country are all taken to have the same disease epidemiology. A common disease epidemiology across very different migrant groups is unlikely, so in this review of inf...
Source: Public Health Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research
Abstract Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have drastically reduced disease incidence worldwide. Protection against Hib infection has relied on the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) of antibodies to the Hib capsular polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate). However, licensure usually relies on measuring induction of antibodies to PRP as a surrogate for SBA. In a phase III clinical trial we compared a PRP-conjugate vaccine using the nontoxic diphtheria toxin mutant, CRM197, as carrier protein with the licensed tetanus toxoid conjugate when administered subcutaneously as a three dose primar...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Little is known about protection against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in adult asylum seekers. In this 2016 study, we assessed the immunity of adult asylum seekers against nine VPD to identify groups that might benefit from additional vaccinations. We invited asylum seekers from Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea and Ethiopia to participate in a serosurvey. Par...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
(Frontiers) Analysis of more than 38,000 children in Ghana shows that all-cause mortality is significantly lower in children who received the measles vaccine after the third diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination. The study adds to growing evidence that, when administered in the WHO recommended sequence, measles vaccination provides non-specific benefits to child survival. The findings have implications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing child mortality.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
More News: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) | Children | Diphtheria | Infectious Diseases