Metabolic proteins relocate to jump-start an embryo ’s genome, UCLA study finds

FINDINGSTo turn on its genome — the full set of genes inherited from each parent — a mammalian embryo needs to relocate a group of proteins, researchers at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have discovered. The metabolic proteins, normally found in the energy-generating mitochondria of cells, move to the DNA-containing nuclei about two days after a mouse embryo is fertilized, according to the new study, led by senior author Utpal Banerjee.BACKGROUNDEarly in development, a mammalian embryo — or zygote — has all the materials it needs to grow and divide from genes and proteins that were contained in the egg cell. But after a few cell divisions, the zygote needs to activate its own genome. Researchers have never fully understood how this shift is made. They knew that certain metabol ic compounds, such a pyruvate, were required, but had also observed that the mitochondria — which normally process pyruvate into energy — were small and inactive during this stage of development.METHODBanerjee, a professor of molecular, cell, and developmental biology and co-director of the UCLA Broad Stem Cell Research Center, and colleagues confirmed that pyruvate was required for zygotes to activate their genomes by growing mouse zygotes in a culture dish lacking pyruvate. Then, in both mouse and human embryos, researchers used a number of methods to determine the location of proteins that process p...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Conclusion The periconceptional environment and lifestyle factors modify sperm epigenome. This alteration might be maintained in the zygote and throughout development, thereby leading to the inheritance of newly acquired pathologies. The role of sperm miRNA, not only as innovative markers of fertility issues but also as vectors involved in the inheritance of paternal diseases, appears to be crucial. Overweight and obesity seem to alter sperm miRNA profile, thereby leading to transmission of different miRNA profiles in zygote, with consequences on embryo development. In long term, metabolic disorders have been described in...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
There is nothing more frustrating than when the cure is part of the problem. Because depression is prevalent in patients with physical disorders like cancer, stroke, and heart disease, medications often interact with each other, complicating treatment. To appropriately manage depression, you and your physician need to evaluate all medications involved and make sure they aren’t cancelling each other out. A review in the journal Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience a while back highlighted certain medications that can cause depression. The following are medications to watch out for. Medications to Treat Seizures and Park...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Depression Medications Drug Interactions Mood Disorder Source Type: blogs
(Abstracted from Hum Reprod 2018;33:2249–2255) Cytotoxic cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, cause damage to spermatogenic stem cells (SSCs), jeopardizing the fertility of young men of reproductive age. One potential method for future production of sperm in this population is SSC transplantation.
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - Category: OBGYN Tags: GYNECOLOGY: INFERTILITY/REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES Source Type: research
Abstract Chemotherapy-induced ovarian aging not only increases the risk for early menopause-related complications but also results in infertility in young female cancer survivors. Oogonial stem cells have the ability to generate new oocytes and thus provide new opportunities for treating ovarian aging and female infertility. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural phenol derived from plants, that has been shown to have positive effects on longevity and redox flow in lipid metabolism and a preventive function against certain tumors. To evaluate whether resveratrol could promote the repair of oog...
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
Abstract Infertility represents a major medical, economic, and psychological problem. Stem cells therapy for infertility has a great interest nowadays especially for cancer survivors at pre-reproductive and reproductive age.  Thirty-two adult male albino rats were used, divided equally into four groups; Group I (Control group) received isotonic saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) as vehicle. Group II (Cisplatin-treated group) received Cisplatin (i.p.) at a single dose of 7 mg/kg, and then were sacrificed after 5 days. Group III (Stem-cell-treated group) received Cisplatin (i.p.) at a single dose of 7 mg/kg, ...
Source: Ultrastructural Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Ultrastruct Pathol Source Type: research
When Noah Shulman was born a few days after Christmas 2016, his parents Kristelle and Evan had no reason to worry about him. The pregnancy went smoothly, and so did the birth. But within a few days of taking his first breath, Noah began to struggle. He wasn’t feeding, so he started losing weight. He was also lethargic. Several pediatricians reassured the Shulmans that they were probably just overly sensitive to Noah’s symptoms because Kristelle is a nurse and Evan is a physician assistant–a case of first-time-parent-white-coat syndrome. “They kind of dismissed us as neurotic parents,” says Eva...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized fertility Research Source Type: news
Stem cells survive oncotherapy &can regenerate non-functional gonads: A paradigm shift for oncofertility. Indian J Med Res. 2018 Dec;148(Supplement):S38-S49 Authors: Bhartiya D Abstract A large proportion of patients who survive cancer are rendered infertile as an unwanted side effect of oncotherapy. Currently accepted approaches for fertility preservation involve banking eggs/sperm/embryos or ovarian/testicular tissue before oncotherapy for future use. Such approaches are invasive, expensive, technically challenging and depend on assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Establishing a gonadal ti...
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research
Publication date: 6 November 2018Source: Cell Reports, Volume 25, Issue 6Author(s): Brian P. Hermann, Keren Cheng, Anukriti Singh, Lorena Roa-De La Cruz, Kazadi N. Mutoji, I-Chung Chen, Heidi Gildersleeve, Jake D. Lehle, Max Mayo, Birgit Westernströer, Nathan C. Law, Melissa J. Oatley, Ellen K. Velte, Bryan A. Niedenberger, Danielle Fritze, Sherman Silber, Christopher B. Geyer, Jon M. Oatley, John R. McCarreySummarySpermatogenesis is a complex and dynamic cellular differentiation process critical to male reproduction and sustained by spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Although patterns of gene expression have been...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical Endocrinology &MetabolismAuthor(s): Marc Kanbar, Francesca di Michele, Christine WynsAbstractTransplantation of own cryostored spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is a promising technique for fertility restoration when the SSC pool has been depleted.In this regard, cryopreservation of pre-pubertal testicular tissue or SSCs suspensions before gonadotoxic therapies is ethically accepted and increasingly proposed.SSC transplantation has also been considered to treat other causes of infertility relying on the possibility of propagat...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Kaoru Miyazaki, Matthew T. Dyson, John S. Coon V, Yuichi Furukawa, Bahar D. Yilmaz, Tetsuo Maruyama, Serdar E. BulunSummaryDefective endometrial stromal fibroblasts (EMSFs) contribute to uterine factor infertility, endometriosis, and endometrial cancer. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from skin or bone marrow biopsies provide a patient-specific source that can be differentiated to various cells types. Replacement of abnormal EMSFs is a potential novel therapeutic approach for endometrial disease; however, the methodology or...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
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