Hyponatremia and fractures: should hyponatremia be further studied as a potential biochemical risk factor to be included in FRAX algorithms?

AbstractThe Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX ®) was developed by the WHO Collaborating Centre for metabolic bone diseases to evaluate fracture risk of patients. It is based on patient models that integrate the risk associated with clinical variables and bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck. The clinical risk factors included in FRAX were chosen to include only well-established and independent variables related to skeletal fracture risk. The FRAX tool has acquired worldwide acceptance despite having several limitations. FRAX models have not included biochemical derangements in estimation of fracture risk due to the lack of vali dation in large prospective studies. Recently, there has been an increasing number of studies showing a relationship between hyponatremia and the occurrence of fractures. Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality measured in the clinic, and serum sodium concentration is a very reprod ucible, affordable, and readily obtainable measurement. Thus, we think that hyponatremia should be further studied as a biochemical risk factor for skeletal fractures prediction, particularly those at the hip which carries the greatest morbidity and mortality. To achieve this will require the collec tion of large patient cohorts from diverse geographical locations that include a measure of serum sodium in addition to the other FRAX variables in large numbers, in both sexes, over a wide age range and with wide geographical representation. It ...
Source: Osteoporosis International - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

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In conclusion, implementation of FLS was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent fracture, indicating that FLSs should be included routinely at hospitals treating fracture patients.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
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Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research
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Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
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Source: Arthritis and Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: FULL LENGTH Source Type: research
In conclusion, implementation of FLS was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent fracture, indicating that FLSs should be included routinely at hospitals treating fracture patients.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
ABSTRACTThe loss of estrogen (E2) initiates a rapid phase of bone loss leading to osteoporosis in one ‐half of postmenopausal women, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show for the first time how loss of E2 activates low ‐grade inflammation to promote the acute phase of bone catabolic activity in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. E2 regulates the abundance of dendritic cells (DCs) that express IL ‐7 and IL‐15 by inducing the Fas ligand (FasL) and apoptosis of the DC. In the absence of E2, DCs become long ‐lived, leading to increased IL‐7 and IL‐15. We find that IL‐7 and IL‐15 together, but not a...
Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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