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Top Ten Medical Research Issues and Trends to Watch in 2017

2016 will go down as a year that taught us to question our assumptions. The election of Donald Trump, an outcome almost no one predicted, left many with a sense of uncertainty about what 2017 will bring in the biomedical and health-care space. To bring clarity to these unsure times, FasterCures has compiled a list of issues critical to the future of medical innovation that we'll be tracking over the coming year. While some issues will be closely linked with the people and policies of the new presidential administration, we think all will be important to continuing the progress toward faster cures and treatments. 1. FDA: What is the roadmap going forward? 2017 could be an exceptionally important year at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We don't know who will lead the FDA as commissioner, and at least one senior leader has announced his retirement. We know that the dust-up over the agency's approval in September of Sarepta's Exondys 51 for Duchenne muscular dystrophy has led to a lot of discussion about how decisions will be made going forward. And we know the number of approvals in 2016 was lower than the record-breaking numbers of recent years, due to a declining number of New Drug Applications from industry, though some fingers will undoubtedly be pointed at the agency. The 21st Century Cures Act, passed in December, contains some "real but modest regulatory innovations" that are being portrayed by some (erroneously, we believe) as reducing FDA's standar...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Authors: Alanazy MH, Barakeh RB, Asiri A, Edrees MF, Abuzinadah AR, Aljafen BN, Muayqil T Abstract Only a small fraction of patients with acute ischemic stroke receive intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We sought to assess barriers and practice patterns in using IVT for acute ischemic stroke among neurologists in Saudi Arabia. An electronic survey was sent to all neurologists registered with the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties. A total of 148 (77.5%) neurologists responded. The most common reported barriers for IVT administration were delayed presentation to hospitals (82.4%) and unclear time of symptom onset ...
Source: Neurology Research International - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Int Source Type: research
Conclusion: This paper addresses the clinical implications of performing numerous CT examinations in patients with cancer, providing clinicians with information regarding methods to reduce risk factors in this patient population.Blood Purif 2018;46:56 –69
Source: Blood Purification - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Conclusions: RDLs are frequently observed in high-risk patients for gastric cancer after eradication. M-NBI demonstrated significantly superior diagnostic efficacy with respect to RDL.Digestion 2018;98:48 –55
Source: Digestion - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
This study showed that ESE-16 exposure leads to the aggregation of acidic vesicles, identified as lysosomes, not accompanied by an induction of autophagy. Therefore, ESE-16 disrupts normal endocytic vesicle maturation likely through the inhibition of the microtubule function.Pharmacology 2018;102:9 –16
Source: Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that viral-based immunotherapy has the potential to overcome resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and to fill the unmet needs of many cancer patients. Poxviruses, such as modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), have the potential as cancer immunotherapeutic agents. We recently showed that intratumoral (IT) delivery of inactivated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (iMVA) induces antitumor systemic immunity via the STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and Batf3 –dependent CD103+/CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs).
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a serine protease hypothesized to promote inflammation via cleavage of protease-activated receptors PAR1 and PAR2. KLK6 and PAR1/2 are expressed in skin, however their biological roles remain unclear. RNAseq of lesional skin from psoriasis (Ps) patients identified KLK6 as the most-increased KLK family member (n=6; 13-fold; P
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
Biologics are effective for the treatment of psoriasis, but head-to-head studies comparing the efficacy of the recently approved biologics are lacking for certain comparators of interest. Here, we indirectly compared psoriasis clinical trial efcacy data between ixekizumab (IXE), a selective interleukin (IL)-17A antagonist,and guselkumab (GUS), a recently approved IL-23 p19 inhibitor. We used the adjusted indirect comparison (AIC) Bucher method (BU) and two modied Signorovitch methods (SG) matching for overall or adjusting for baseline characteristics and effect modifiers to compare IXE 80 mg every 2 weeks (IXEQ2W) to GUS 1...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder that is characterized by excessive skin inflammation with scaly erythema and epidermal thickness. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cell surface protein that is expressed by Langerhans cells (LCs), a population of epidermal dendritic cells, and normal epithelial cells. LCs control initial immune response to antigen or pathogen and therefore we hypothesized that EpCAM expressed by LC might be important in regulating inflammatory immune responses. Mutations in EpCAM have been reported in patients with congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE), who suffer from severe diarrhea and E...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, are Foxp3- IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells implicated as key regulators of peripheral immune tolerance. Recently it was identified that surface expression of CD49b and LAG-3 is sufficient to identify this specific cell lineage. As IL-10 and LAG-3 expression in psoriasis lesions are extremely low, we hypothesized that impaired immune tolerance in psoriasis could be associated with reduced Tr1 cells. To test the hypothesis, we analyzed 12 psoriasis patients' blood&skin tissues, and 8 control blood samples to compare Tr1(CD3+ CD4+ CD8- CD49b+ LAG-3+) cells, Tregs(CD3+ CD4+ CD8- CD25+ CD...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and interleukin (IL)-17A on the activation of macrophages in in vivo mouse skin. We examined whether macrophages are activated in the skin of imiquimod (IMQ)-treated mice, a model for IL-17A-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation, and flaky-tail (Flgft) mice, a model for IL-17A-induced chronic atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
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