The 1925 Diphtheria Antitoxin Run to Nome - Alaska: A Public Health Illustration of Human-Animal Collaboration

AbstractDiphtheria is an acute toxin-mediated superficial infection of the respiratory tract or skin caused by the aerobic gram-positive bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The epidemiology of infection and clinical manifestations of the disease vary in different parts of the world. Historical accounts of diphtheria epidemics have been described in many parts of the world since antiquity. Developed in the late 19th century, the diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) played a pivotal role in the history of public health and vaccinology prior to the advent of the diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. One of the most significant demonstrations of the importance of DAT was its use in the 1925 diphtheria epidemic of Nome, Alaska. Coordinated emergency delivery of this life-saving antitoxin by dog-sled relay in the harshest of conditions has left a profound legacy in the annals of vaccinology and public health. Lead dogs Balto and Togo, and the dog-led antitoxin run of 1925 represent a dynamic illustration of the contribution made by non-human species towards mass immunization in the history of vaccinology. This unique example of cooperative interspecies fellowship and collaboration highlights the importance of the human-animal bond in the one-health initiative.
Source: Journal of Medical Humanities - Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

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This study highlights the importance of epidemiological surveillance together with characterization of C. diphtheriae strains to help inform the future control and prevention of diphtheria. PMID: 31472364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Family quarrels are usually private things—unless of course, the family is famous. A public spat among boldface names broke out on May 8, when three members of the Kennedy clan published a piece on Politico declaring that Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.—son of Bobby Kennedy—has been “tragically wrong” in his years-long crusade against vaccines, a crusade that seems especially irresponsible now as the country suffers through its worst measles outbreak since 1994. Kennedy has become a hero of the anti-vax crowd with his persistent claims that vaccines contain deadly ingredients, particularly a mercury-ba...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized History onetime Source Type: news
In this study we have evaluated whether our OMVs vaccine is capable of overcoming the deficiencies of commercial vaccines in both controlling infections caused by PRN(-) isolate/strain and inducing memory immunity. We found that our OMVs-based formulation has a higher protective capacity against the PRN(-) bacteria than that induced with a commercial aP vaccine. We found that CD4 T cells with a tissue-resident memory (TRM) cell phenotype (CD44+CD62LlowCD69+ and/or CD103+) accumulated in the lungs of mice after the second OMVs vaccine immunization. CD4 TRM cells were also detected in mice immunized with wP vaccine, but not ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we infected pregnant first parity gilts in their first, second and third trimesters of gestation with PEDV to determine the impact of stage of gestation on generation of maternal B-cell immunity, the gut-MG-sIgA axis and lactogenic immune protection in PEDV challenged piglets. Our goal was to identify innate and adaptive immune factors during pregnancy that influence lymphocyte trafficking, in addition to immune correlates of lactogenic immune protection in neonatal suckling piglets. Understanding the impact of stage of gestation at PEDV infection or exposure on maternal immunity will allow more precise mate...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This article reviews the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of tetanus, botulism, and diphtheric neuropathy. RECENT FINDINGS Tetanus is most common in lower-income settings, but rare cases are seen in higher-income settings because of the inadequate maintenance of vaccination status. Foodborne botulism remains rare, but botulism can also be caused by IV drug use (wound botulism) and medical use of botulinum toxin (iatrogenic botulism); botulinum toxin has also been considered a potential agent of bioterrorism. Diphtheric neuropathy is rare but has been seen in recent epidemi...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
Clinical and epidemiological aspects of microcephaly in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil, 2015-2016. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2018 Jun 29;: Authors: Almeida IMLM, Ramos CV, Rodrigues DC, Sousa AC, Nascimento MLCAPCD, Silva MVBD, Batista FMA, Santos JPD, Oliveira RS, Nobre FAF, Xavier SCDC, Carvalho-Costa FA Abstract OBJECTIVES: To describe aspects of the microcephaly epidemic in the state of Piauí. METHODS: All cases of congenital microcephaly confirmed in the state between 2015 and 2016 were included (n=100). Investigation forms of the Regional Reference Center for Microcephaly we...
Source: Jornal de Pediatria - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: J Pediatr (Rio J) Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: Washington Post: To Your Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Conclusions Access to EPI vaccination for children is a key example of preventative public health interventions that have been curtailed in Northern Syria since the start of the conflict. These findings demonstrate that collapse of the formal public health system has led to an increasingly large group of children who are susceptible to infectious diseases with serious consequences, with younger children most vulnerable. We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of EPI activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
We examined monthly service use data for eight maternal and child health services indicators: antenatal care (≥1 antenatal care visit and ≥3 antenatal care visits), institutional delivery, and receipt of five infant vaccines: polio, pentavalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B virus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b), yellow fever, measles, and tuberculosis. We used interrupted time series models to estimate trends in each indicator across three time periods: pre-Ebola virus disease epidemic (January, 2013, to February, 2014), during-epidemic (March, 2014, to February, 2015) and post-epidemic (March, 201...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research
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