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Nanodiscs deliver personalized cancer therapy to immune system

Researchers have had initial success in mice using nanodiscs to deliver a customized therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of colon and melanoma cancer tumors.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Abstract Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the development of several diseases, including cancer. IL-32 is a rather peculiar cytokine because its protein structure does not show resemblance with any of the known cytokines, and an IL-32 receptor to facilitate extracellular signaling has not yet been identified. Thus far, 9 isoforms of IL-32 have been described, all of which show differences in terms of effects and in potency to elicit a specific effect. Since the first report of IL-32 in 2005, there is increasing evidence that IL-32 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of bo...
Source: Seminars in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Semin Immunol Source Type: research
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumour initiation, metastasis and cancer recurrence, however the involvement of microenvironment is crucial. Here, we have analyzed how human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived conditioned medium (CM) affect colon and melanoma CSCs enrichment and maintenance. Our results strongly suggest that the secretome of CM-MSCs selects and maintains subpopulations with high expression of CSCs markers and ALDH1 activity, low proliferation rates with G1 phase arrest, and notably retain in vivo these properties.
Source: Cancer Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Inhibition of interleukin 8/C‑X-C chemokine receptor 1,/2 signaling reduces malignant features in human pancreatic cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2018 Apr 30;: Authors: Fu S, Chen X, Lin HJ, Lin J Abstract Interactions between interleukin (IL)-8 and its receptors, C‑X-C chemokine receptor 1, (CXCR1) and CXCR2 serve crucial roles in increasing cancer progression. Inhibition of this signaling pathway has yielded promising results in a number of human cancers, including breast, melanoma and colon. However, the effects of CXCR1/2 antagonist treatment on pancreatic cancer remain unclear. The pres...
Source: International Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Int J Oncol Source Type: research
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells after binding to its corresponding receptors. Previously, we demonstrated that a recombinant human TRAIL, ILz:rhTRAIL, potentiated TRAIL killing activity by multimerization through its isoleucine zipper hexamerization motif in human colon carcinoma and leukemic T lymphocytes. Additionally, treatment of tumor cells with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib results in multiple biological effects including inhibition of the cell cycle and increased apoptosis.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Pigmentation and Melanoma Source Type: research
Tumors consist of diverse cell populations with different tumorigenic capacities, phenotypes and functions. This tumor heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer and drives disease progression. However, the genes associated with highly tumorigenic subpopulations and their mechanism or regulation remain elusive. We analyzed patient-derived xenografts from melanoma, colon and pancreatic cancer tissues to isolate subpopulations with increased tumor initiating potential and identify their underlying gene signature.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Pigmentation and Melanoma Source Type: research
Fascin1 is an actin-bundling protein involved in cancer cell migration and has recently been shown also to have roles in virus-mediated immune cell responses. Because viral infection has been shown to activate immune cells and to induce interferon-β expression in human cancer cells, we evaluated the effects of fascin1 on virus-dependent signaling via the membrane- and actin-associated protein RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) in colon cancer cells. We knocked down fascin1 expression with shRNA retrovirally transduced into a DLD-1 colon cancer and L929 fibroblast-like cell lines and used luciferase reporter assays...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Cell Biology Source Type: research
Tumors consist of diverse cell populations with different tumorigenic capacities, phenotypes and functions. This tumor heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer and drives disease progression. However, the genes associated with highly tumorigenic subpopulations and their mechanism or regulation remain elusive. We analyzed patient-derived xenografts from melanoma, colon and pancreatic cancer tissues to isolate subpopulations with increased tumor initiating potential and identify their underlying gene signature.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Pigmentation and Melanoma Source Type: research
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells after binding to its corresponding receptors. Previously, we demonstrated that a recombinant human TRAIL, ILz:rhTRAIL, potentiated TRAIL killing activity by multimerization through its isoleucine zipper hexamerization motif in human colon carcinoma and leukemic T lymphocytes. Additionally, treatment of tumor cells with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib results in multiple biological effects including inhibition of the cell cycle and increased apoptosis.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Pigmentation and Melanoma Source Type: research
Authors: Wang Y, Lan GB, Peng FH, Xie XB Abstract Renal transplantation is associated with an increased risk of cancers at multiple sites; however, the relationships between increased cancer risk and participant characteristics remain unclear. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify prospective observational studies performed up to July 2017. Totally 11 prospective studies reported data on 79,988 renal transplant recipients were included. Renal transplant recipients were found to display a higher risk of all cancers (standard incidence ratio [SIR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.13-3.91; P
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
We studied the effects of gut microbiome depletion by oral antibiotics on tumor growth in subcutaneous and liver metastases model of pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and melanoma. Gut microbiome depletion significantly reduced tumor burden in all the models tested. However, depletion of gut microbiome did not reduce tumor growth in Rag1-knockout mice, which lack mature T and B cells. Flowcytometry analyses demonstrated that gut microbiome depletion led to significant increase in interferon gamma-producing T cells with corresponding decrease in interleukin 17A and interleukin 10-producing T cells.
Source: Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
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