Updated Medicare and Medicaid Drug Spending Data Released
On November 15, 2016, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released updated Medicare and Medicaid drug spending data, to include information for calendar year (CY) 2015 through its online interactive dashboards for Medicare and Medicaid. The inclusion of the Medicaid drug spending data on the public dashboard is new this year, as is the addition of high-level (aggregated) Medicare drug rebate data. CMS noted that “there is significant growth in spending on prescription drugs, representing a significant burden.” In CY 2015, total prescription drug costs amounted to roughly $457 billion – an estimated 16.7 percent of personal health care spending. “This is up from $367 billion, or 15.4 percent of personal health care spending in 2012. With annual growth expected to average 6.7 percent annually for 2025, [CMS] expect[s] increasing costs to continue to put pressure on families and programs that cover prescription drugs.” The dashboard provides spending, utilization, and other trend data for the drugs chosen to be included in the dashboards. CMS selected drugs for inclusion that met the following criteria: (1) drugs with high spending on a per user basis (Medicare) and drugs with high spending on a per prescription fill basis (Medicaid); (2) drugs with high total program spending; and (3) drugs with high costs increases in recent years. Medicare CMS identified a total of eighty drugs for inclusion on the dashboard: 40 Part D drugs,...
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Journal of Health EconomicsAuthor(s): Dimitris Christelis, Dimitris Georgarakos, Anna Sanz-de-GaldeanoAbstractEconomic theory predicts that a reduction in background risk should induce financial risk-taking, particularly for individuals with low stock market participation costs. Hence, health insurance coverage could affect financial risk-taking by offsetting health-related background risk. We use a regression discontinuity design to examine whether Medicare eligibility at age 65 increases stockholding in the US and find that it does so for those with college educa...
In this study, serum IL6 was measured by ELISA, and the HSD11B1rs12086634(T/G) polymorphism was analyzed using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay technique. There were statistically significant differences between the two studied groups concerning the serum IL-6 level and HSD11B1rs12086634(T/G) genotype distribution, with increased serum IL6 and increased frequencies of the GG and TG genotypes in patients with PCO. The GG genotype of HSD11B1 rs12086634(T/G) and its associated high level of serum IL-6 may represent genetic risk factors for PCOS.
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2019Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Tom Marcelissen, Kevin Rademakers
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2019Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Zhengzheng Xu, Guangzhe Ge, Bao Guan, Zhentao Lei, Xueyu Hao, Yuanyuan Zhou, Yue Shi, Huan Lu, Jilu Wang, Ding Peng, XiKang Wu, Huiying He, Bao Zhang, Xuesong Li, Liqun Zhou, Weimin Ci
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Pirus Ghadjar, Thomas Wiegel
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Elise De Bleser, Piet Ost
ConclusionThe CFQL-2 is a brief, reliable scale that effectively measures psychosocial aspects of QoL and is sensitive to changes in QoL in families of children with ASD or related neurodevelopmental disorders. Child externalizing behavior is strongly associated with reductions in multiple aspects of child and family psychosocial QoL.
ConclusionThis meta-analysis suggested a significant association between MTHFR gene polymorphism (C677T and A1298C) and ASD risk.
ConclusionGiven that obtaining negative margins is important in reducing the risk of recurrence, the method of surgical resection utilized is based on the amount of future functional residual hepatic parenchyma.
ConclusionsTattooing of axillary LNs is safe and easily performed. Tattooing was helpful in identifying the marked LN in the majority of cases. This technique helps to ensure that metastatic LNs are identified and removed at surgery after NAT.
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