The Rise In C-Sections Could Be Changing Human Evolution

C-sections have been on the rise for decades, now making up more than 30 percent of all deliveries in the United States. An intriguing new study out of Austria suggests that as C-sections have become more common, they might also be altering the course of human evolution. More babies are being born with heads that are too big for their mothers’ pelvises ... which leads, the theory goes, to more C-sections. Why? Before the widespread use of C-sections, larger babies and their narrow-hipped moms had a good chance of dying during childbirth ― meaning their genes weren’t passed on. But because C-sections tend to save those babies, the genes that contribute to a possible bigger head/smaller pelvis scenario have continued to be passed on. The researchers believe that as so-called “fetopelvic disproportion” continues to increase (meaning, more babies have a harder time passing through their mom’s pelvis), C-section rates will grow ― although they caution that at this point it’s only a mathematical theory. “To my knowledge, this has not been shown empirically yet,” study researcher Philipp Mitteröcker, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Vienna told Vox. His team’s findings were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) this week. And yet some OB-GYNs don’t think the prediction is all that far-fetched.  “It seems like a very reasonable theory,” Dr...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology (English Edition)Author(s): Caio Klippel Amaral, Márcio Luiz Benevides, Marília Marquioreto Benevides, Diogo Leite Sampaio, Cor Jesus Fernandes FontesAbstractBackground and objectivesPregnant women are considered patients at risk for pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The study aim was to evaluate the gastric antral cross-sectional area using ultrasound.MethodIn this prospective study, 85 scheduled term pregnant women underwent gastric ultrasound. The outcomes were the measurement of the gastric antral cross-secti...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of selected pregnancy pathologies statistically depending on overweight/obesity and excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy on women who gave birth in the years 2013–2015 at the Second Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University Hospital in Bratislava, Slovakia. In a retrospective study, we analyzed data gathered from the sample, which consisted of 7122 women. Our results suggest a statistically significant, higher risk for the groups of women with overweight and obesity and gestational hypertension (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 15.3; 95% CI 9.0&min...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In the United States and other developed countries, we have seen a shift over the past several decades in the types of illness people struggle with. Public health campaigns around vaccination, sanitation, and judicious use of antibiotics have largely eradicated many infectious illnesses. As the nature of disease has shifted to inflammatory conditions, we’ve seen a striking increase in allergy and autoimmune conditions such as diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and multiple sclerosis. The microbiome — the varied and teeming colonies of gut bacteria inside of us — may be helping ...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Digestive Disorders Family Planning and Pregnancy Inflammation Probiotics Source Type: blogs
Bianca Cox1†, Maria Tsamou1†, Karen Vrijens1, Kristof Y. Neven1, Ellen Winckelmans1, Theo M. de Kok2, Michelle Plusquin1 and Tim S. Nawrot1,3* 1Center for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium 2Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands 3Department of Public Health, Environment and Health Unit, Leuven University (KU Leuven), Leuven, Belgium Maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy is known to affect both fetal growth and later-life health of the newborn, yet the implicated molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. As the master reg...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
ConclusionsBariatric surgery is a successful treatment of maternal obesity, but certain surgery-specific risks may exist. More data are needed to determine clinical guidelines. The long-term effects of surgery on pregnancy outcomes are unknown.
Source: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Authors: Amaral CK, Benevides ML, Benevides MM, Sampaio DL, Fontes CJF Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pregnant women are considered patients at risk for pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The study aim was to evaluate the gastric antral cross-sectional area using ultrasound. METHOD: In this prospective study, 85 scheduled term pregnant women underwent gastric ultrasound. The outcomes were the measurement of the gastric antral cross-sectional area (main outcome), the estimated gastric volume, the incidence of pregnant women at risk for pulmonary aspiration, and the association between gastric antral ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Rev Bras Anestesiol Source Type: research
We describe below how metagenomic and nutritional data were integrated into the algorithm in Tobalina et al. (2015). Metagenomic Data From Vallès et al. (2014), we collected 454 pyrosequencing metagenomic data of the gut microbiota of 13 Spanish infants at five different time points during the first year after birth (1 week and 1, 3, 7 months, and 1 year). For the second time point considered (1 month), we only have data for 9 out of 13 infants and, therefore, we have 61 samples overall. Information on sex, type of delivery, antibiotic exposure, and feeding habits for these infants is provided in Supplementary Tab...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conditions:   Caesarean Section;   Obesity;   Cesarean Section Complications Intervention:   Sponsor:   Karolinska Institutet Enrolling by invitation
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
This report presents anatomopathological evidence of an early-stage malignant transformation in endometriotic tissue from a post-Cesarean scar and briefly reviews possible underlying mechanisms. A 40-year-old woman with a body mass index of 42.7 was referred to the gynecological department with recurrent pain and presence of a palpable mass in her Cesarean section scar. She had undergone this procedure 7 years earlier and began experiencing discomfort and pain at the incision site 6 months postoperatively. Surgical treatment was instituted with complete removal of the lesion. Anatomopathological examination revealed endome...
Source: Case Reports in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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