Oral Glucose-lowering Drugs and Cardiovascular Outcomes: From the Negative RECORD and ACCORD to Neutral TECOS and Promising EMPA-REG.

Oral Glucose-lowering Drugs and Cardiovascular Outcomes: From the Negative RECORD and ACCORD to Neutral TECOS and Promising EMPA-REG. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2016 Dec 08; Authors: Tsioufis C, Andrikou E, Thomopoulos C, Papanas N, Tousoulis D Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality are higher among patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), particularly those with concomitant CV diseases, compared with other populations. In patients with T2DM, intensive glucose lowering reduces microvascular disease, but has a smaller and debated effect on CV events or mortality. In this setting, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required in 2008 that all new agents for the treatment of T2DM should be evaluated in terms of CV safety. Metformin has long been established as first-line pharmacological therapy in patients with T2DM, due to its proven beneficial CV effects. Despite the controversies about the issue of the CV safety of other oral antidiabetic agents such as sulfonylureas (SUs) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), long-term randomized trials suggested neutral effects of these agents on macrovascular disease. Moreover, there are a number of CV outcome trials designed to determine the long-term CV safety of new glucose-lowering agents, like dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Although the results of these trials indicate the CV safety of oral new antidiabetic agents, only one of them (wi...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Bouzabata Amel, F. MahomoodallyAbstractThe aim of the study was to quantitatively document the use of plant-based medicine for the management of diabetes in Northeastern Algeria. Samples of 300 diabetic patients and 20 traditional healers were interviewed in five districts within Northeastern Algeria. The study showed that 4% of patients used phytotherapy in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), 26.3% recommended the amalgamation of conventional medicine with phytotherapy as a complementary or alternative medicine ag...
Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
This study aimed to confirm the effectiveness and safety of metformin as a treatment option in patients with COPD. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database from their starting date to December 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, and retrospective researches reporting the use of metformin for treating patients with COPD were identified. We included a total of six articles (involving 3,467 participants) and found that metformin may benefit patients with COPD and T2DM by improving health status and symptoms, hospitalisations, and mortality. There was no e...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Clinica Chimica ActaAuthor(s): Qi Ma, Li Wang, Ye Yang, Yinxia Su, Tingting Wang, Qinqin Hou, Ren Cai, Zhiqiang Wang, Hua YaoAbstractObjectiveTo screen long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) related to glucokinase regulatory protein gene (GCKR), its differential expression was analyzed in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and control samples. The correlation of lncRNA with GCKR was verified and its potential value as a molecular marker of T2DM was assessed.MethodsLymphocyte RNA was extracted from five patients with T2DM and five patients with non-T2DM. The expres...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Kaneko K, Chikamoto A, Hsu JC, Tochinai R, Sekizawa SI, Yamamoto M, Kuwahara M Abstract Environmental enrichment (EE) can reduce anxiety and stress in experimental animals, while little is known about the influence on autonomic nervous activity especially in disease animal models. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, which can be characterized by a higher resting heart rate and a lower heart rate variability (HRV). We hypothesized that EE can enhance parasympathetic nervous activity while reducing disease progression in type 2 diabetic mice. A telemetry transmitte...
Source: Experimental Animals - Category: Research Tags: Exp Anim Source Type: research
This study evaluated the effect of combined inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol supplement on organ weight, intestinal ATPase activities, complete blood count, and serum analytes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. High-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight) were used to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. The diabetic groups were then treated with either combined IP6 and inositol supplement or glibenclamide for four weeks. Organ weights, intestinal ATPase activities, complete blood count, serum α-amylase, total pr...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions: Dioscin showed potent anti-T2DM activity by improving the inhibitory effect of miR-125a-5p on STAT3 signaling to alleviate glycolipid metabolic disorder of T2DM.
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Authors: Kouamé NM, Koffi C, N'Zoué KS, Yao NAR, Doukouré B, Kamagaté M Abstract Native to Mexico, Persea americana Mill. (avocado) is a fruit tree whose different parts (leaf, bark, roots, and stone) are used in traditional medicine especially against diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of 28-day treatment with aqueous, ethanolic, and methanolic leaf extracts on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic mellitus using Wistar rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced with nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p.) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.)....
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
AR, López-Hernández Y Abstract Chronic exposure to arsenic (As), whether directly through the consumption of contaminated drinking water or indirectly through the daily intake of As-contaminated food, is a health threat for more than 150 million people worldwide. Epidemiological studies found an association between chronic consumption of As and several pathologies, the most common being cancer-related disorders. However, As consumption has also been associated with metabolic disorders that could lead to diverse pathologies, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesi...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Condition:   Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Intervention:   Other: Oral Nutrition Supplement Sponsor:   Nestlé Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Conclusions: The higher prevalence of elevated FG and/or T2DM among Roma does not seem to be directly linked to their increased genetic load but rather to their environmental/cultural attributes. Interventions targeting T2DM prevention among Roma should focus on harmful environmental exposures related to their unhealthy lifestyle.
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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