In Depth Worries, confusion after cancer trial deaths

An experimental cancer therapy is facing its biggest setback yet, after an unexpected complication killed seven people, five of them in a single clinical trial. The company, Seattle, Washington–based Juno Therapeutics, has its most troubled trial on hold and is racing to figure out why patients suffered fatal brain swelling, called cerebral edema. Researchers elsewhere are grappling with possible ramifications for the breakthrough treatment, in which a patient's T cells are genetically engineered to fight cancer. Called chimeric antigen receptor–T therapy, it goes up for drug approval next year. Doctors speculate that the cerebral edema could be due to the specific product tested and the trial's patient population, rather than the overall strategy itself. But they're mostly in the dark, and hope that additional research, including new animal models, could help explain what happened and why. Author: Jennifer Couzin-Frankel
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Cancer Immunotherapy Source Type: news

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Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: February 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 76, SupplementAuthor(s): E.G. Vichaya, D.J. Estrada, B.G. Ford, J.M. Molkentine, D.W. Vermeer, P.D. Vermeer, C.M. Taniguchi, R. DantzerWhile fatigue is one of the mostly commonly reported side effects of cancer therapy, there is significant variability in intensity and persistence of this symptom. Understanding the factors accounting for this variation may provide insight into mechanisms underlying fatigue. An often overlooked issue is the possible influence of sex differences. The few studies that have been conducted employed patient-reported out...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
sand Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults. Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, including the breakthrough of immunotherapy, the prognosis of GBM patients remains dismal. One of the new promising ways to therapeutically tackle the immunosuppressive GBM microenvironment is the use of engineered viruses that kill tumor cells via direct oncolysis and via stimulation of antitumor immune responses. In this review, we focus on recently published results of phase I/II clinical trials with different oncolytic viruses and the new interesting findings in preclinical models. From synge...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Immune therapy via adoptive cell transfer (ACT), especially with T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), represents a particularly promising approach. Despite the recent success of CAR T cells for blood cancers, the question remains whether this powerful anti-cancer therapy will ultimately work for brain tumors, and if the primary immunologic challenges in this disease-which include antigenic heterogeneity, immune suppression and T-cell exhaustion-can be adequately addressed. Here, we contextualize these...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
In this report, we propose that the molecular mechanisms of beneficial actions of CR should be classified and discussed according to whether they operate under rich or insufficient energy resource conditions. Future studies of the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of CR should also consider the extent to which the signals/factors involved contribute to the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and other CR actions in each tissue or organ, and thereby lead to anti-aging and prolongevity. RNA Interference of ATP Synthase Subunits Slows Aging in Nematodes https://www.fightaging.org/archives/...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Sun S, Du G, Xue J, Ma J, Ge M, Wang H, Tian J Abstract Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is highly expressed in human glioblastoma and involved in tumor immune escape and resistance to chemotherapy, is clinically correlated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcomes, and is a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma. IDO inhibitors are marginally efficacious as single-agents; therefore, combination with other therapies holds promise for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects and mechanisms of the IDO inhibitor PCC0208009 in combination with temoz...
Source: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol Source Type: research
In this study, we investigate mitochondrial energetics and mtDNA methylation in senescent cells, and evaluate the potential of humanin and MOTS-c as novel senolytics or SASP modulators that can alleviate symptoms of frailty and extend health span by targeting mitochondrial bioenergetics. Exercise versus the Hallmarks of Aging https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/06/exercise-versus-the-hallmarks-of-aging/ The paper I'll point out today walks through the ways in which exercise is known to beneficially affect the Hallmarks of Aging. The Hallmarks are a list of the significant causes of aging that I dis...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Wang R, Zhou T, Liu W, Zuo L Abstract Cancer cells subjected to ionizing radiation may release signals which can influence nearby non-irradiated cells, termed bystander effects. The transmission of bystander effects among cancer cells involves the activation of inflammatory cytokines, death ligands, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. In addition to bystander effects, two other forms of non-target effects (NTEs) have been identified in radiotherapy, as one is called cohort effects and the other is called abscopal effects. Cohort effects represent the phenomenon where irradiated cells can produce signals ...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
In this study, we did not observe significant age-dependent upregulation of the prominent SASP cytokine Il6 in any tissue, although an upward trend was observed that was consistent in magnitude with previous observations in the heart and kidney. This modest age-related upward trend could be explained by a previous report which demonstrated that senescent cell-secreted IL-6 acts in an autocrine manner, reinforcing the senescent state, rather than inducing senescence or promoting dysfunction in neighboring cells. The decreased expression of Il6 with age we observed in the hypothalamus could be indicative of a lack or ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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