Assessment of Functional Norovirus Antibody Responses by Blocking Assay in Mice
Norovirus (NoV)-specific serum antibodies bind to NoV-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) and block the binding of VLPs to the host cell attachment factors/receptors, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Blocking antibodies in human sera have been associated with a protection from NoV infection and disease. Studies of experimental NoV VLP-based vaccines measure blocking antibodies in animal sera instead of a traditional virus neutralization assay. This chapter describes the methodology for analyzing blocking antibodies from NoV GII.4 VLP-immunized mouse sera. Protocol for obtaining mouse NoV GII.4-specific immune sera is described, followed by the detailed protocol for blocking assay using synthetic HBGAs.