Attenuation of the virulence of a recombinant influenza virus expressing the naturally truncated NS gene from an H3N8 equine influenza virus in mice

In this study, our results suggest that the C-terminal moiety of NS1 contains a number of virulence determinants and might be a suitable target for the development of a vaccine candidate against equine influenza.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Abstract Clinical and historical data underscore the ability of influenza viruses to ally with Staphylococcus aureus and predispose the host for secondary bacterial pneumonia, which is a leading cause of influenza-associated mortality. This is fundamental because no vaccine for S. aureus is available and the number of antibiotic-resistant strains is alarmingly rising. Hence, this leaves influenza vaccination the only strategy to prevent postinfluenza staphylococcal infections. In the present work, we assessed the off-target effects of a Tnms42 insect cell-expressed BEI-treated Gag-VLP preparation expressing the HA...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Influenza A virus infection is a global health threat to livestock and humans, causing substantial mortality and morbidity. As both pigs and humans are readily infected with influenza viruses of similar subtype, the pig is a robust and appropriate model for investigating swine and human disease. We evaluated the efficacy of the human cold-adapted 2017–2018 quadrivalent seasonal LAIV in pigs against H1N1pdm09 challenge. LAIV immunized animals showed significantly reduced viral load in nasal swabs. There was limited replication of the H1N1 component of the vaccine in the nose, a limited response to H1N1 in the lung lym...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to develop a first-generation vaccine which combines the safety and efficacy advantages of inactivated and attenuated vaccines respectively. The approach targeted fragmentation of viral nucleic acids while preserving structure. Hence, cultures of influenza A/CA/04/09 H1N1 were exposed to 44 °C for 10 min. to reversibly denature the capsid, followed by RNase treatment to digest the genomic RNA and then refolded at lower temperatures. As targeted, treated virions retained an intact structure and were not detected in the first passage in infected cells. To improve intra-nasal ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
by James A. Hay, Karen Laurie, Michael White, Steven Riley The strength and breadth of an individual’s antibody repertoire is an important predictor of their response to influenza infection or vaccination. Although progress has been made in understanding qualitatively how repeated exposures shape the antibody mediated immune response, quantitative under standing remains limited. We developed a set of mathematical models describing short-term antibody kinetics following influenza infection or vaccination and fit them to haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres from 5 groups of ferrets which were exposed to different ...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we report a temperature induced conditionally expressed phage PhiX174 gene E mediated lysis of Salmonella under in vivo conditions that can increase the immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine delivered via Salmonella carrier system. We electroporated gene E encoding lysis plasmid pJHL187 along with the pcDNA-HA plasmid encoding H1N1 HA into attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium, strain JOL1893. Using C57BL/6 mice as the model, we showed that the mice intragastrically vaccinated with JOL1893 induced significant production of HA-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses compared to the JOL1837, which carry pcDN...
Source: Journal of Immunological Methods - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Methods Source Type: research
With the rising prevalence of obesity has come an increasing awareness of its impact on communicable disease. As a consequence of the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus pandemic, obesity was identified for the first time as a risk factor for increased disease severity and mortality in infected individuals. Over-nutrition that results in obesity causes a chronic state of meta-inflammation with systemic implications for immunity. Obese hosts exhibit delayed and blunted antiviral responses to influenza virus infection, and they experience poor recovery from the disease. Furthermore, the efficacy of antivirals and vaccines is reduced...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Mireia Pedragosa1†, Graciela Riera1†, Valentina Casella1, Anna Esteve-Codina2,3, Yael Steuerman4, Celina Seth1, Gennady Bocharov5,6, Simon Heath2,3, Irit Gat-Viks4, Jordi Argilaguet1* and Andreas Meyerhans1,7* 1Infection Biology Laboratory, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences (DCEXS), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain 2CNAG-CRG, Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Barcelona, Spain 3Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain 4Cell Research and Immunology Department, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 5Marchuk Institute of Numeric...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed. Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are pathogens of global concern in both human and veterinary medicine (Webster et al., 1992; Stöhr, 2002; Olsen et al., 2006; Wiethoelter et al., 2015). Wild birds are well-described hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and longitudinal surveillance studies have demonstrated a plethora of low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) circulating in wild...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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